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Активный и пассивный залоги




1. Активный залог (The Active Voice). Когда подлежащее является лицом, совершающим действие, то глагол употребляется в форме активного залога:

Popov inventedthe radio in 1895. Попов изобрел радио в 1895 году

They will discuss the matter at the Они обсудят этот вопрос на бли-

next meeting. жайшем собрании.

2. Пассивный залог (The Passive Voice).Когда подлежащее является лицом (или объектом), подвергающимся действию со стороны другого лица или объекта, то глагол употребляется в форме пассивного залога. Пассивный залог образуется с помощью вспомогательного глагола to be в соответствующем времени, лице и числе и причастия II смыслового глагола, т.е. по формуле to be + Participle II.

The radio was invented by Popov Радио было изобретено Поповым

in 1895. в 1895 году.

The matter will be discussed at Этот вопрос будет обсужден на

the next meeting. ближайшем собрании.

Глагол в пассивном залоге можно переводить на русский язык тремя способами:

a) глаголом с окончанием –ся, -сь;

b) глаголом быть ( в прошедшем и будущем времени) и краткой формой причастия;

c) неопределенно-личной формой глагола.

При переводе следует выбирать тот способ, который лучше всего подходит в каждом отдельном случае.



 

Tense   Simple   Progressive   Perfect  
Present   Am/is/are asked I am asked Меня спрашивают Am/is/are being asked I am being asked Меня спрашивают сейчас Have/has been asked I have been asked Меня спросили  
Past   Was/were asked I was asked Меня спросили Was/were being asked I was being asked Меня спрашивали   Had been asked I had been asked Меня спросили  
Future   Shall/will be asked I shall./will be asked Меня спросят (будут спрашивать) __     Shall/will have been asked I shall/will have been asked Меня спросят    

 

 

ВАРИАНТ 1

 

 

I.Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на разные значения слов it, that, one.

1. The authorities found it necessary to close all schools.

2. One must realize that the increasing number of cars brings about considerable pollution of the air.

3. That computers and industrial robots are important for industrial uses is well known to scientists and engineers.

 

II.Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, помня о разных значениях глаголов to be, to have, to do.

1. The study of theory is accompanied by practical training.

2. I had to get up early yesterday.

3. The development of science is closely connected with the development of higher education.

4. She has just passed her History exam.

5. Our company is doing well now.

 

 

III.Перепишите следующие предложения, подчеркните в каждом из них модальный глагол или его эквивалент. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. As telegraph wires couldn’t be hung over the ocean, cables had to be laid on the floor of the Atlantic Ocean.

2. Judges must be free of any political bias.

3. The development of new materials doesn’t mean that old materials should lose their significance.

4. They were allowed to continue their research.

5. Cactus plants needn’t much water. That’s why they can grow in the dry desert.

6. He will be free tomorrow and he will be able to help you.

 

 

IV. Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в каждом из них видо-временную форму и залог глагола-сказуемого. Переведите предложения.

1. They spent their vacation at the same village where they had lived many years ago.

2. Isn’t Professor Blake going to be invited to make a speech?

3. As French was constantly spoken around him, he soon became familiar enough with the language to understand a great deal of what was said.

4. He liked music, but the piece she was playing had no melody for him.

5. Some students will be permitted to take exams in December.

6. He was not expected to say that.

V. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык.

 

OXFORD UNIVERSITY

The University of Oxford may be said to date from 1214, when the first charter was granted by the Pope, but long before this date there had existed in the town a number of religious communities and these were the real beginning of the University.

First there were only about 60 chapels and a student was living and studying at one of these chapels learning theology, logic and rhetoric. Oxford University of today is a federation of 48 colleges, each largely independent.

The governing body of Oxford University is the congregation of 1500 men- the assembly of all the members of the colleges. The colleges admit students, organize programs, students’ work and residence, laboratories, libraries and term examinations and confers degrees. Forty colleges of 48 admit only men, two colleges are mixed and six colleges are only for women.

A person studying for a degree at a British University is called a graduate. B.A. or B.Sc. stands for Bachelor of Arts or of Science, the first degree given after a period of 3-4 years of specialized study at a University. M.A. or M. Sc. denotes Master of Arts, or of Science, a higher degree, usually conferred after a year’s post-graduate study.

Social changes have certainly transformed Oxford considerably. Some of the traditions have gone in the past. However in spite of all these changes Oxford has not lost its distinctive character.

 

ВАРИАНТ 2

 

I.Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на разные значения слов it, that, one.

1. The engineer was told that he might test the device in the afternoon.

2. It is evident that electricity will be the energy of the future.

3. One may get all the necessary books there and it is possible to keep them till the end of the academic year.

 

II. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, помня о разных значениях глаголов to be, to have, to do.

1. I am to leave for London soon.

2. We were taught to use the lab equipment.

3. He is good at mathematics and does it whenever he has a chance.

4. The car has brought mobility to millions of people, but at the same time polluted the atmosphere.

5. Next term I shall do research in the field of computer engineering.

 

III. Перепишите следующие предложения, подчеркните в каждом из них модальный глагол или его эквивалент. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

 

1. We must protect the clean water that remains for the sake of our children and grandchildren.

2. Fire may be started by rubbing together two sticks of wood.

3. If you are traveling by air, you mustn’t carry anything in your luggage that could be used as a weapon, such as a knife or a pair of scissors.

4. Jack has already cleaned his bicycle so he won’t have to do it tomorrow.

5. Before Newton no one could explain why the planets moved around the Sun.

6. An optional disk can store about 1 000 times more information than a plastic disk of the same size.

 

IV. Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в каждом из них видо-временную форму и залог глагола-сказуемого. Переведите предложения.

 

1. They are paid twice a month.

2. I was recommended another doctor.

3. They have never closed the library at eight o’clock.

4. The brain controls your body and keeps all parts of your body working together.

5. When centers receive messages, the brain interprets them.

6. He went somewhere after returning to America from Europe, and for years has not been heard of.

 

V. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык.

 

THE UNIVERSITY OF STRATHCLYDE (SCOTLAND)

Strathclyde is an exciting and stimulating environment in which to study. Founded in 1796 by John Anderson, Professor of Natural Philosophy at Glasgow University, it has quickly earned a reputation as a center of excellence in scientific and technological education. By 1993 Strathclyde was organized into 5 faculties: Arts and Social Studies, Business, Engineering, Science and Education.

The University main campus is only a stone’s throw from Glasgow’s civic center. It means that students can enjoy an unparalleled range of amenities right on their doorstep. The Faculty of Education, for instance, supports the academic and recreational needs of its students through the wide range of facilities which include a library, theatre, bank, two shops, refectory, swimming pools, gymnasia and sports grounds.

As for cultural activities, the University Theatre Group has presented everything from new interpretations of Shakespeare to the latest drama from the USA. The Drama Center’s professional staff and visiting specialists offer regular workshops in most areas of theatre practice, including acting, design, voice, mime and movement.

Strathclyde postgraduates can take advantage of careers services in the UK. A particular feature of the University is its strength in contract research. It is one of two Universities that have been most successful in working with industry in developing academic research into commercial applications. Once close working relationships of this sort have been formed, other areas of work, such as training studentships, staff secondments and visiting professorships follow.

Thus, you will find that Strathclyde has a reputation as Scotland’s most dynamic and innovative university.

 

 

ВАРИАНТ 3

 

 

I.Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на разные значения слов it, that, one.

1. The important fact is that electricity offers improved service at reduced cost.

2. It is industrialization that is making ecological problems very serious.

3. One must study six years to become an engineer.

 

II.Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, помня о разных значениях глаголов to be, to have, to do.

1. The work was done perfectly.

2. Measures are being taken to save Lake Baikal.

3. According to the weather forecast, it’ll be raining the whole day tomorrow.

4. They will have to repair their car.

5. Computers of different types and sizes have appeared in every country of the world.

 

III . Перепишите следующие предложения, подчеркните в каждом из них модальный глагол или его эквивалент. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. If you borrow money from the bank you must pay interest.

2. It is quite clear to everybody in his family that he should start getting ready for his examinations.

3. He will have to work systematically if he wants to know French well.

4. Not long ago chemists developed new materials that could withstand high temperatures.

5. Children were allowed to go to the cinema alone.

6. You must have a dictionary when you translate such difficult articles.

 

 

IV. Перепишите следующие предложения, подчеркните в каждом из них глагол-сказуемое и определите его видо-временную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

 

1. In our climate the vine doesn’t grow out-of-doors, as it does in countries with a hotter summer, and hothouse grapes is very expensive.

2. I noticed a number of improvements done in this town since I last was there.

3. The students were having an interesting discussion when the teacher came in.

4. If I see the manager tomorrow, I shall remind him of that important point.

5. We shall send you the goods as soon as they are available.

6. This program will be broadcasted again tomorrow night.

 

V. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык.

 

 

CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY

Cambridge is one of the two main universities of England located at the Cam River. It was founded at the beginning of the 12th century. The University consists of 24 different colleges including 4 for women. Each college is self-governing. The head of the University is the chancellor who is elected for life.

Each student has a tutor who practically guides him through the whole course of studies. The teachers are commonly called “dons” and “tutors”. Part of the teaching is by means of lectures organized by the University. Besides lectures teaching is carried out by tutorial system for which the Cambridge University is famous all over the world. This is a system of individual tuition organized by the colleges.

Each student has a tutor who practically guides him through the whole course of studies. The tutor plans the student’s work and once a week a student goes to his tutor to discuss his work with him. The training course lasts 4 years. The academic year is divided into 3 terms. The students study natural and technical sciences, law, history, languages, geography and many other subjects.

After three years of study a student may proceed to a Bachelor’s degree, and later to the degrees of Master and Doctor. Students are required to wear gowns at lectures, in the University library, in the street in the evening, for dinners in the colleges and for official visits. All the students must pay for their education, examinations, books, laboratories, university hostel, the use of libraries, etc. Very few students get grants. The cost of education depends on the college and specialty.

A number of great men, well-known scientists and writers studied at Cambridge. Among them are: Erasmus, the great Dutch scholar, Bacon, the philosopher, Milton and Byron, the poets, Cromwell, the soldier, Newton and Darwin, the scientists.

 


ВАРИАНТ 4

 

I.Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на разные значения слов it, that, one.

1. One must observe traffic regulations when crossing the street.

2. The efficiency of the new computer is much higher than that of the old one.

3. It was a very interesting article about the development of the national economy.

II.Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, помня о разных значениях глаголов to be, to have, to do.

1. He had to read a lot of books to make his report.

2. Have you given them any work?

3. I had no time to go there.

4. The letter will be posted at once.

5. They were to have arrived at seven o’clock.

 

III. Перепишите следующие предложения, подчеркните в каждом из них модальный глагол или его эквивалент; предложения переведите на русский язык.

1. They had to stay at home because it was raining.

2. If we are allowed we shall take some exams in advance.

3. The experiments are to clarify this point of view.

4. He must ring you up.

5. I won’t be able to help you.

6. You can get all the necessary books in the library.

 

 

IV. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них глагол- сказуемое и определите его видо-временную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. We thought that you were going to show your project to the teacher.

2. We shall discuss the results when we finish our experiments.

3. She had left before the letter arrived.

4. The children were playing in the garden while we were watching TV.

5. Why is she being looked at now?

6. This building had been built by the end of the last century.

 

V. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык.

THE UNIVERSITY OF LONDON

 

The University of London was created to conduct the examination and to grant degrees upon the students from any institution situated anywhere in the British Empire.

Up until 1900 the University of London was only an examining and degree-awarding body, but in that year an Act of Parliament permitted to provide lecture rooms, museums, laboratories, work shops, etc. for both teaching and research. Today the University of London is a federation of colleges, each largely independent. There are four faculties of Theology, thirteen of Arts, thirty-one of Medicine, ten of Science, etc.

The University of London grants degrees to all who satisfy its examinations, with the exceptions of engineering and medical degrees (for which the study at an approved institution is required). The London external degree has been of great importance in the development of the university system.

Many of the new independent universities were at first university colleges (i.e. university institutions which could not award their own degrees) and for them the University of London became the degree-awarding body. The London external degree is very important to students in technical colleges and some teacher-training colleges, as well as for private students working on their own, away from educational centers.

The development of new qualifications (e.g. the new Diploma in Technology) and increasing enrollment in regular university courses have made the external degree less important.

 

 

ВАРИАНТ 5

 

I. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на разные значения слов it, that, one.

 

1. This wireless set is better than that one.

2. One must always keep one’s word.

3. It is the industrial concentration that makes Sheffield unique.

 

II. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, помня о разных значениях глаголов to be, to have, to do.

 

1. I had a bad toothache, but just hadn’t enough courage to go to the dentist.

2. Do they have to hurry?

3. Who is to speak next?

4. That is a very difficult problem for us.

5. The new modern building of a picture gallery is to be set up in one of those industrial centers. It is being designed by a group of talented architects.

 

III.Перепишите следующие предложения, подчеркните в каждом из них модальный глагол или его эквивалент; переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. Can you translate this agreement into French?

2. They will be able to create the necessary conditions for the development of their enterprise.

3. He asked me whether he might take my dictionary.

4. She will be allowed to tell you about it herself.

5. He had to ring you up.

6. The old methods of teaching English are to be renewed.

 

IV. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них глагол-сказуемое и определите его видо-временную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

 

1. What magazine were you looking through when I came in?

2. She said she had graduated from the University a few years ago.

3. He gave the right answer to the question and received an excellent mark.

4. The curricular of correspondence, evening and full - time higher schools do not differ essentially in the subjects taught, but they differ in the system in which the studies are organized.

5. The goods have been examined by the customs officers.

6. The steamer will be unloaded when the agent arrives at the port.

 

V. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык.

HARVARD UNIVERSITY

 

Founded in 1636, Harvard University is one of the oldest and most prestigious universities in the United States. From its classrooms have emerged six American presidents - from John Adams to John F. Kennedy - and an impressive group of statesmen, business leaders, and literary figures. Its campus in Cambridge, Massachusetts, just across the Charles River from Boston provides a rich architectural mix that includes the ivy-covered brick of Puritan New England and the concrete and glass of contemporary design.

Today, the university includes Harvard and Radcliff undergraduate colleges, 10 professional schools, the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences and an extension school. There are some 1,600 students from every state and 45 foreign countries in it; tuition is about $12,000 a year, and 70% of those attending receive financial aid.

The university library system is the largest in the world; it contains more than 10 million volumes and subscribes to 100,000 periodicals. There are three notable art Museums which house works from ancient Egyptian to contemporary American. There is also a botanical Museum, 40 acres of fields, an experimental forest located in New England, a center for a study of the Italian Renaissance in Italy, and a center for Byzantine studies in Washington, D. C.

Литература

Основная литература:

1. Грамматика современного английского языка = A new university english grammar : учебник для вузов / [О. В. Емельянова и др.] ; под ред. А. В. Зеленщикова, Е. С. Петровой ; С.-Петерб. гос. ун-т, Фак. филологии и искусств. - 2-е изд., испр. и доп. - Москва : Академия ; Санкт-Петербург : Факультет филологии и искусств СПбГУ, 2011- 719 с.

2. Кошевая Инна ГеоргиевнаТеоретическая грамматика английского языка : учебник для вузов / И. Г. Кошевая. - Москва : Академия, 2012. - 316, [3] с. : ил., табл. - (Высшее профессиональное образование). - (Бакалавриат). - (Педагогическое образование). - 319 с.

3.Михайлов, Николай Николаевич Лингвострановедение США = American Cultural Studies : учебное пособие для вузов / Н. Н. Михайлов, М. Н. Михайлов. - Москва : Академия, 2008. - 283, [3] с. : ил. - (Высшее профессиональное образование). - (Педагогические специальности). - Библиогр. – 285с.

4. Роптанова Людмила ФедоровнаМетодика современного грамматического анализа английского предложения : учеб. пособие / Л. Ф. Роптанова ; Ульян. гос. пед. ун-т им. И. Н. Ульянова. - Москва : Флинта : Наука, 2011. - 108 с.

5. Сапоговская Лидия Ивановна Переводческое преобразование текста : учебное пособие для вузов [Гриф УМО] / Л. И. Сапоговская. - 3-е изд., стер. - Москва : Флинта, 2013. – 315 с.

Дополнительная литература:

1. Восковская А.С., Карпова Т.А. Английский язык для вузов. Ростов н/Д.: Феникс, 2010.

2. Бурова З.И. Учебник английского языка для гуманитарных специальных вузов. М.: Айрис-Пресс, 2009.

3. Андрианова Л.Н. Курс английского языка для вечерних и заочных технических вузов. М.: Высшая школа, 2008.

4. Мюллер В.К. Англо-русский словарь. ЭКСМО, 2012.

5. Тюнина Е.В. Electrical Engineering: учебное пособие для технических

вузов. М.: Флинт: наука, 2009.

6. Орловская И.В., Самсонова А.С. Учебник английского языка для студентов

технических университетов и вузов. М.: Изд-во МГТУ им. Баумана, 2008.

Интернет ресурсы: Интернет-сайт www.translate.ru (английский язык)


 

 

ЗАДАНИЯ К КОНТРОЛЬНЫМ РАБОТАМ

по дисциплине «Иностранный язык» (английский)

и методические указания к их выполнению

 

 

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