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The Structure of Government in Great Britain




The Queen is officially head of all the branches of


government, but she has little direct power in the country. The constitution has three branches: Parliament, which makes lows, the government, which "executes" laws (puts them into effect) and the courts, which interpret laws. Parliament has two parts: the House of Commons and the House of Lords. Members of the House of Commons are elected by the voters of 650 constituencies. They are known as Members of Parliament. The Prime Minister is advised by a Cabinet of about twenty other ministers.

The Prime Minister, or leader of the Government, is usually the leader of the political party. The Cabinet includes the ministers in charge of major government departments or ministries. Departments and ministries are run by civil servants, who are permanent officials. Even if the Government changes after an election, the same civil servants are employed. Members of the House of Lords are not elected. About 70 per cent of them are "hereditary peers" because their fathers were peers before them. The 30 per cent are officially appointed by the Queen, on the advice of the Government, for various services for people.

Questions:

1. Who is the head of government in Britain?

2. How many parts does Parliament have? What are they?

 

4. Who is the leader of political party?

5. What can you tell about the House of Lords?

-Vocabulary: to execute - исполнять to interpret - толковать hereditary - наследственный

Структура правительства Великобритании

Официально королева является главой всех ветвей вла­сти правительства, но она не имеет большой власти в стране.


Согласно Конституции существуют три подразделения: парламент, который издает законы, правительство, которое исполняет законы (приводит их в действие), и суды, кото­рые толкуют законы. Парламент состоит из двух частей: палаты общин и палаты лордов. Члены палаты общин избираются из 650 кандидатур. Они известны как члены парламента. Премьер-министр выбирается кабинетом из 20 других министров.

Премьер-министр, или руководитель правительства, -лидер политической партии. Кабинет назначает министров, ответственных за отделы правительства и министерства-. В отделах и министерствах работают государственные слу­жащие, которые являются постоянными работниками. Даже если правительство после выборов меняется, государствен­ные служащие остаются прежние. Члены палаты лордов не выбираются. Около 70% из них - наследственные пэры, потому что их отцы были, пэрами до них. Остальные 30% официально назначаются королевой, по совету правитель­ства, для различных общественных служб.

Forming a Government. The Cabinet

The party which wins the most seats in the General Election forms the government in Britain. The leader of the winning party becomes Prime Minister. As leaders of their political parties and leaders of the country, Prime Ministers are powerful because they have the majority support in Parliament and they can choose their own ministers and government. The PM, chooses a committee of ministers called the Cabinet. This is made up of a selection of senior MPs from the House of Commons and some members of the House of Lords. Each member of the Cabinet is a minister responsible for a government department: for example, the Secretary of State for Education and Science is responsible for all the schools, universities and teachers in Britain. The Cabinet of ministers runs the country. The Cabinet meets at the Prime Minister's house - 10 Downing Street. The cabinet works as a team


and all ministers must accept the decisions of the "group". The team of ministers must always agree in public because they are collectively responsible for the decisions they make. If a minister cannot agree with all the others, he usually resigns from the cabinet. Cabinet meetings are held in private and the details must remain secret for at least 30 years. Margaret Thatcher tried to change this style of the Cabinet and was forced to resign when the other ministers could not agree with her. Cabinet ministers cannot, however, do as they please! They are responsible to Parliament and must answer questions from backbenchers from the House of Commons. Even the Prime Minister must answer questions every Tuesday and Thursday in the Commons - this is called Prime Ministers Question Time. Everyone wants to know what has been decided behind the closed doors of the Cabinet Room.

Questions:

1. Which party forms the government?

2. Who becomes Prime Minister?

3. Why are Prime Ministers powerful?

4. Where does the Cabinet meet?

5. What did Margaret Thatcher try to do?

6. Why was Margaret Thatcher forced to resign?

7. Whose questions must Cabinet ministers answer?

8. What does everyone want to know?

Vocabulary: support - поддержка

senior - старший (по возрасту или по положению) to be responsible - отвечать за to run - управлять to resign - уйти в отставку backbencher - рядовой член парламента




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