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B. Now read the words in sentences and mark which syllable is stressed

1. There was a small decrease in sales. 2. We import some of our parts from China. 3. These cases are for export. 4. Have you made much progress! 5. We record all these transactions separately. 6. I'd like a refund please. 7. The government eventually banned the import of all electrical goods. 8. Prices are expected to decrease by less than 1 per cent this year. 9. We are meeting again tomorrow to try and progress the matter. 10. We will refund your money in full if you are not completely satisfied.

76. Word Study

A. Find international words in the text and write them out. Learn
their correct pronunciation.

B. Give Russian equivalents to the following word combinations:

trading nations; industrialising countries; to enter the Industrial Revolution; shipbuilding, coal mining, steel production, and textiles; an economic advantage; to make up about 70% of GDP; service sector; tourist destination; manufacturing sector; to account for more than 80 % of exports; global car manufacturers; aerospace and defence equipment; a broad base of domestic firms; food needs; to be heavily subsidised; to re-vitalize the British economy; to lag behind; trade partners.

С Give English equivalents to the word combinations:

промышленные товары; тяжелая промышленность; иностран­ные рынки; международная торговля; излишняя рабочая сила; постепенно; на протяжении XX столетия; финансовые операции; Лондонская фондовая биржа; Английский банк; товарная биржа; мировой экономический спад; смежные отрасли промышленнос­ти; Европейское экономическое сообщество; сырье; Общий ры­нок; развитые страны; валовой внутренний продукт.

D. Complete the chart with the missing forms where possible.


Nouns Verbs Adjectives

E. Match the words from A with their opposites from B.


total, major, allow, developed, efficient, expand, export, related, concentrate, lose, entry minor, import, diminish, unrelated, exit, deconcentrate, forbid, part, undeveloped, inefficient, gain

F. Match the words from A with their synonyms from B.


concentrate, dominate, by degrees, farming, allow, commodities, manufacture, include, provide, allied, primary products, livestock lead, produce, permit, raw materials, focus, supply, related, goods, comprise, cattle, agriculture, gradually

G. Match the words from the article with their definitions:

intensive diminish securities allied downturn

expertise re-vitalize commodity surplus

1)more than is needed; 2) special skill or knowledge that you get from experience, training, or study; 3) documents showing that you

own shares in a company; 4) something that can be bought and sold, especially basic food products or fuel; 5) a reduction in economic or business activity; 6) to make something that is failing or weak become strong and successful again; 7) to become less; 8) related because of having shared qualities or interests; 9) designed to produce as much food as possible from an area of land.

77. Grammar Focus

A. Study the following speech pattern.

Clauses of contrast although / though / even though+ clause

Although / Even though / Though she had a cold,she went to work.

She went to work although / even though / though she had a cold.

She had a cold. She went to work, though.

Even though is more emphatic than although. Though is usually used in everyday speech and can also be put at the end of a sentence.

B. Find sentences with clauses of contrast in the text "Economy
of the United Kingdom
" and translate them.

C. Combine the following pairs of sentences using the conjunctions
"although", "though" or "even though".

1. The population of the UK represents only 2 per cent of the world total. The country provides about 10 per cent of world exports of manufactured goods. 2. We have investigated a number of sites. We haven't made a decision yet. 3. The British manufacturing sector has greatly diminished since World War II. Manufacturing plays a vital role in the British economy. 4. Packaging is expensive. It can help promote the product. 5. The British economy is primarily based on private enterprise. Some industries were nationalised after World War II. 6. Costs have come down. The advances in computer technology have been considerable. 7. The meeting lasted three hours. No one was bored. 8. The market has probably passed its peak. Computer sales are still very high. 9. We use our own designers. The costs are very

high. 10. Agriculture is one of Britain's most important industries. It employs about 2 % of the working population. D. Study the following speech pattern.

The Absolute Participial Construction

It being Sunday,there was no one in the office.

They were walking again, with Hugh calmly smoking his cigar.

E. Find sentences with the absolute participial construction in the
text "Economy of the United Kingdom" and translate them.

F. Match the items in the first column with those in the second
one to make sentences with the absolute participial construction.
Analyze and translate the sentences.


1. The key having been lost, a) I had to go out to make a
2. The room being dark, call.
3. The delegates came from ten b) 1 was able to take a week's
countries, holiday.
4. The telephone being out of c) with Great Britain being
order, 5. The urban population represented by Professor Arthur Clark.
increasing, 6. The climate of Britain being d) the people's purchasing power has declined.
mild, 7. The job done, e) she didn't see anyone at first.
8. V/ith the inflation growing, f) much attention is paid to
  housing construction.
  g) its flora is very rich.
  h) they couldn't enter the office.

G. Combine the two sentences using the absolute participial construction.

Example: This duty was completed. He had three months leave. This duty completed, he had three months leave.

1. It was Sunday. There was no one at the office. 2. He could sit so for hours. His books were closed and were lying beside him. 3. The room was too small. We moved into a larger one. 4. The work was done. We were paid right away. 5. There were too many 102

applicants. The interviews were split into two days. 6. The focus was made on the quality of goods. But the productivity was still falling behind. 7. The progress of the reform was slow. The government was determined to continue supporting the needy population.

Diving Deeper

Finish the sentences according to the text.

1. Britain is one of the largest trading nations in the world as ... . 2. The British entered the Industrial Revolution and concentrated on ... . 3. The UK dominated international trade in the 19th century because ... .4. There has been a decline in the relative importance of manufacturing and a rise in that of ... . 5. ... belong to the important financial institutions of the City. 6. The UK is the sixth major tourist destination in the world, with ... . 7. The British manufacturing sector has greatly diminished since World War II because of ... . 8. ... are important contributors to the UK's manufacturing base. 9. British agriculture specializes in ... . 10. Entry into the Common Market helped Britain to expand its foreign trade although ... .


Prove the following statements using the information from the text.

• Britain is a highly developed country.

• The UK used to dominate international trade.

• The service sector is the dominant sector of the UK economy.

• London is the world's largest financial centre.

• Tourism is the 6th largest industry in the UK.

• The United Kingdom's agriculture sector is small by European standards.

• Entry into the Common Market didn't re-vitalize the British economy.


Student A: You are a curious student talking to a teacher about the British economy. Ask your teacher questions on the subject.

Student B: You are a teacher of economics telling your student about Britain. Be ready to answer your student's questions about the British economy.





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