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Группа «неопределенных» времен





 

Неопределенные или простые формы- Indefinite (Simple) Tenses: употребляются для констатации факта действия в настоящем, прошедшем или будущем без указания на его длительность, законченность и безотносительно к какому-либо другому действию или моменту.

 

Время Утвердительная форма Вопросительная форма Отрицательная форма
  S+V, V-s Do/does+S+V S+don’t/doesn’t+V
Present Simple (настоящее простое) I (we, you, they) work. He (she, it) works. Do you (we, they) work? Does she (he, it) work? I (we, you, they) don’t work. He (she, it) doesn’t work.
  S+V-ed, V2 Did+S+V S+didn’t+V
Past Simple (прошедшее простое) I (he, she, we, you, they) worked. He saw this film   Did you (I (he, she, we, they) work? Did he see the film? I (he, she, we, you, they) didn’t work. He didn’t see it.
  S+will/shall+ V Will+ S+V S+ won’t + V
Future Simple (будущее простое)   I (we) shall work. You (he, she, they) will work. Shall we work? Will you (he, she, they) work? I (we) shall not (shan’t) work. You (he, she, they) will not (won’t) work.

 

THE PRESENT SIMPLE TENSE

Простое настоящее время

 

Когда употребляется пример
●действие происходит в настоящем времени в широком смысле, а не в момент речи. People build houses.
●всеобщая истина. The sun rises in the east.
●ряд последовательных действий I wash the potatoes, peel them, cut and add a little salt.
●указатели времени действий: never, seldom, rarely, sometimes, often, every day /month/year, usually, always, regularly We often meet Ann in the club.
●в будущем времени с глаголами движения The classes start at 9 a.m.
●регулярно повторяющиеся действия в настоящем We drink coffee in the morning.

 

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ

I.Раскройте скобки, употребив глаголы в правильной форме и переведите предложения.

Образец: Не (to live) in Pushkin Street. He lives in Pushkin Street.

 

1.Every year we (to celebrate) New Year. 2.People (to buy) presents for Christmas. 3.His mother (to make) porridge for breakfast. 4.Fred (to like) to play with his pet. 5.Every spring she (to plant) nice flowers in her garden. 6.Nancy (to draw) very beautiful pictures. 7.He (to look after) his little sister. 8.We (to take) our dog for a walk three times a day. 9.Every night they (to say goodnight) and (to go to bed). 10. Our friends usually (to come) to see us on Sunday. 11. She (to dance) very badly. 12. The school year (to begin) in September.13. The Earth (to go) round the Sun.

II.Опровергните предложения.

Образец: You live in Kiev. I don't live in Kiev.

 

1.She comes home at 5. 2.Tom works at an office. 3.We like apple juice. 4.Liz likes her cat. 5.Jim often gets presents. 6.You like to celebrate your birthday. 7.My friend wants to help me. 8.They buy fresh bread every day. 9.He goes to the village every summer. 10.She sends letters to her relatives. 11.They get good marks at their English lessons. 12.Mr. Black likes to read French books. 13.This poet writes very beautiful poems. 14.That woman makes very good cakes. 15.My children like cookies.



III. Закончите предложения.

 

1.He doesn't live in ... . 2.We don't go to school... . 3.Tom doesn't like ... . 4.My mother doesn't drink ... . 5.They don't want to ... . 6.She doesn't... on Sunday. 7.Bob doesn't want to read ... . 8.We don't come home ... . 9.You don't buy ... every day. 10. She doesn't... in the morning. 11.... doesn't play football in winter. 12. We live … . 13. Peter … well. 14. I do not wear … .

 

IV.Напишите по одному вопросу к каждому предложению, на­чиная их cловами, данными в скобках.

1.She helps her mother about the house. (Whom ...) 2.We live in Moscow. (Where...) 3.The little boy likes to listen to his mother's stories. (Whose ...) 4.On Sundays they go for a walk to the forest. (When ...) 5.The teacher gives the class good marks. (What...) 6.We usually get to the museum by bus. (How ...) 7.My friend is 15. (How old ...) 8.He likes cats. (What...) 9.My friends has got a new TV set. (Who...) 10. I see a ship in the distance. (Who…) 11. Our ship sails on next Tuesday. (When…) 12.We go to see our Granny 3 times a week. (How many times…) 13.He earns his living at a post-office. (Where…) 14.Many people travel by plane. (How …)

 

V.Переведите.

 

1.Мы живем в России. 2.Петр плавает хорошо. 3.Ты любишь кофе? 4.Она ненавидит холод. 5.Птицы улетают на юг. 6.Они едут на работу на автобусе. 7.Ты часто ходишь в кино? 8.Каждое утро я пью чашечку кофе. 9.Он всегда приходит в школу во время. 10.Она встает в 7 часов каждый день. 11.Я обычно ложусь спать в 11 часов. 12.Я не понимаю вас вообще. 13.Вон она идет. 14.Почему ты спрашиваешь? 15.Мой отец отправляется в Лондон на следующей неделе. 16.Следующий поезд уходит через час. 17.Почему не забираете детей домой? 18.Куда мы пойдем сейчас?

 

THE PAST SIMPLE TENSE

Простое прошедшее время

Когда употребляется пример
●●последовательные события в прошлом   They met in the club, played computer games and went to the cinema.
●●однократное действие в прошлом   I finished my lunch an hour ago.
●●многократные действия в прошлом ( совершавшиеся периодически) Every summer the Potters visited their friends in Spain.
●●указатели времени в прошлом: yesterday, last week, some time ago, in 1995, then, when, long ago давно We met Ann yesterday in the club.
●● констатация факта   Columbus discovered America.

 

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ

I.Прочитайте и переведите предложения. Опровергните дан­ные утверждения по образцу.

She played football yesterday. She didn't play football yesterday.

 

1.She worked in the garden yesterday morning. 2.She bought a wonderful dress a week ago. 3.They finished their last lesson at one o'clock. 4.Liz wrote a letter to Mary. 5.In the afternoon I stayed at home. 6. It snowed last Sunday. 7.The teacher gave Lena a good mark. 8.We watched TV in the evening. 9.I asked him to ring me up. 10.He stopped at the corner of the street. 11.You wanted to take an umbrella. 12.Mother felt sorry for her son. 13.She copied the text and looked at the teacher. 14.The pupil at the blackboard pointed to Volgograd on the map. 16.Mr. White worked at an office last year.

 

II.Постройте вопросительные предложения и дайте ответы:

Образец: Не gave a book to Bob. Didhe givea book to Bob? Yes, he did. (или No, he didn't.)

 

1.The children got many nice presents. Did they…? 2.The boy drank a glass of juice.Didhe …? 3.The family traveled by boat. Did they…? 4.Mary and Jane began to dance. Did they…? 5.He got a telegram in the morning.Didhe …? 6.Holidays began in June. Did they…? 7.The sun shone brightly. Did it …? 8.Father ate fish and potatoes for dinner.Didhe …? 9.They wanted to see him on Saturday. Did they…? 10.My sister spent her holiday in Italy. Did she…? 11.The boy loved his dog very much.Didhe …? 12.Tom lost his pen in the yard.Didhe …? 13.My friend finished his work very quickly.Didhe …? 14.Ann invited his friends to a New Year party. Did she…? 15. The children played snowballs in the yard. Did they…?

 

III.Напишите по одному вопросу к каждому предложению, на­чиная их cловами, данными в скобках, и дайте краткий ответ.

Образец: Не came to see me on Sunday. Who came to see me on Sunday? He did.

1.She helped her mother about the house. (Whom ...) 2.We lived in Moscow many years ago. (Where...) 3.The little boy liked to listen to his mother's stories. (Whose ...) 4.On Sundays they went for a walk to the forest. (When ...) 5.The teacher gave the class good marks. (What...) 6.We got to the museum by bus. (How ...) 7.My friend was 15 last year. (How old ...) 8.He liked cats. (What...) 9.My friends had a new TV set. (Who...) 10. I saw a ship in the distance. (Who…) 11. Ann spent her holiday at the seaside last summer? (When…) 12.We went to see our Granny three times last week. (How many times…) 13.He earned his living at a post-office. (Where…) 14.Many people travelled by plane. (How …)

 





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