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Type Active Passive
Simple To read To be read
Progressive To be reading -
Perfect To have read To have been read
Perfect Progressive To have been reading -


The full infinitive with “to” is used:


1. to express purpose. He went to buy some bread.

2. after would love/ like/ prefer.

I’d love to see you tonight.

3. after adjectives (angry, glad, happy, sorry, pleased, annoyed, etc.)

I’m glad to see you here.

4. with tooor enough.

He’s too old to drive. She’s clever enough to understand it.

5. after certain verbs (advise, agree, appear, arrange, attempt, ask, choose, dare, decide, demand, deserve, expect, fail, grow, hasten, happen, hope, hurry, learn, long, manage, neglect, offer, pay, plan, pretend, promise, refuse, seek, seem, struggle, swear, threaten, want, wish etc.).

I hope to meet him again.

6. after questions words (where, how, what, who, which).

Why is not used with to – infinitive.

I don’t know what to do. BUT: Nobody knew why he was angry.


The bare infinitive (without “to”) is used:


1. after modal words (can, must etc). We must leave soon.

2. after let/ make/ hear/ see + object. Let me go or I’ll make you regret it.


N O T E:1) Some verbs can take a full infinitive or the -ing form with no difference in meaning. These verbs are: begin, hate, like, love, prefer, start etc.

He likes to watch/ watching the birds.

2) If the subject of the verb is the same as the subject of the infinitive, then the subject of the infinitive is omitted. If, however, the subject of the verb is different from the subject of the infinitive, then an object pronoun (me, you, him, etc) is placed before the infinitive.

Compare: I want to be back at 10 o’clock. – I want him to be back at 10 o’clock.

Complex Object

Сложное дополнение (объектный падеж с инфинитивом) представляет собой сочетание местоимения в объектном падеже или существительного с инфинитивом и переводится на русский язык дополнительным придаточным предложением:

I want him to help me. – Я хочу, чтобы он полог мне.

He supposes this young man to be an honest fellow. – Он полагает, что этот молодой человек – честный парень.

Сложное дополнение употребляется после глаголов, выражающих желание, восприятие посредством органов чувств, предположение:

To see, to watch, to observe, to notice, to hear, to feel, to want, to wish, to desire, should like, to like, to think, to believe, to suppose, to consider, to find и т.п.

После глаголов, выражающих физическое восприятие, частица to перед инфинитивом опускается.

I saw him cross the street. – Я видел, что он перешел улицу.


№ 43. Раскройте скобки, употребляя требующуюся форму инфинитива. Переведите предложения на русский язык.


1. He seems (to read) a lot. 2. He seems (to read) now. 3. He seems (to read) since morning. 4. He seems (to read) all the books in the library. 5. I want (to take) you to the concert. 6. I want (to take) to the concert by my father. 7. She hoped (to help) her friends. 8. She hoped (to help) by her friends. 9. I hope (to see) you soon. 10. We expect (to be) back in two days. 11. He expected (to help) by the teacher. 12. The children seem (to play) since morning. 13. I am glad (to do) all the homework yesterday. 14. She seems (to work) at this problem ever since she came here. 15. I am sorry (to break) your pen.


№ 44. Переведите предложения с оборотом Complex Object.


1. I suppose him to be about thirty. 2. He believes his parents to be at home now. 3. I don’t consider him to be an honest man. 4. The teacher found him to be a very clever student. 5. The witness saw that woman enter the house. 6. The police officer wanted the young man to be invited here. 7. I should like you to tell the truth. 8. The students liked the lessons to be conducted in the lab. 9. The investigator expected him to give all the information about that fact. 10. We believe the prevention of crime to be one of the main functions of the militia. 11. The policeman saw the criminal run away. 12. We consider the traces to be very important for the investigation. 13. We all know him to be a highly qualified detective.


Complex Subject


Подлежащее (существительное или местоимение) с инфинитивом, стоящим после сказуемого, выраженного глаголом в страдательном залоге или глаголами to seem (казаться), to be likely (вероятно), to be unlikely (маловероятно), to be certain (определенно), to prove (оказывается), to happen (случаться) и др., представляет собой оборот «именительный падеж с инфинитивом» или «сложное подлежащее». Перевод предложения со сложным подлежащим следует начинать со сказуемого, которое переводится на русский язык безличным или неопределенно-личным предложением (говорят, известно, считают, кажется, случается, и т.д.); в придаточном предложении инфинитив становится сказуемым.

He is said to study at the University. – Говорят, что он учитсяв университете.

Books by Conan Doyle are known to have been translated in our country. – Известно, что книги Конан Дойла переведены в нашей стране.

This case is unlikely to be investigated quickly. – Маловероятно, что это дело будет расследовано быстро.

He seems to be investigating that complicated case. – Кажется, он расследует то сложное дело.


№ 45. Переведите предложения с оборотом Complex Subject.


1. That evidence proved to be very important. 2. Our laws are known to protect the interests of all the people. 3. He was expected to arrive in the morning. 4. That investigator is considered to be an experienced lawyer. 5. The crime is reported to have been committed by a group of young people. 6. The British Constitution is considered to be unwritten because it is not codified as a whole in any particular document. 7. The police officer happened to be present at the crime scene at the moment of the commission of the offense. 8. Criminality is considered to be a social phenomenon. 9. I happened to be there at that time. 10. The investigator is expected to solve the crime quickly. 11. The criminal investigation department is considered to be one of the most complicated militia services.



  A c t iv e Passive
Simple (indefinite) reading being read
Perfect having read having been read



1. Gerund is used as a noun.Smoking is dangerous.

2. after love, like, dislike, hate, enjoy.

I love going to discos.

3. after start, begin, stop, finish, keep on.

He started doing his homework at 5:00.

4. after go for physical activities.

She went skiing last Sunday.

5. after certain verbs (avoid, admit, appreciate, confess to, contemplate, delay, deny, detest, endure, escape, excuse, face, fancy, involve, look forward to, mention, mind, miss, object to, postpone, practice, prefer, regret, risk, spend, suggest, etc.).

I don’t mind helping you with the dishes.

6. after the expressions: I’m busy, it’s no use, it’s (no) good use, it’s worth, what’s the use of, be used to, there’s no point (in), feel like, give up, leave off, look forward to, put off, cant stand, spend / waste time.

It’s worth seeing that film.

7. after prepositions: He left without takinghis coat.

8. after hear, see, sound to emphasize an action in progress. I saw her crossingthe street. (I saw her while she was crossing the street.) I saw her cross the street. (I saw her when she had crossed the street.)


№ 46 .Переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на герундий:


1. I avoided speaking to them about that matter. 2. She burst out crying. 3. They burst out laughing. 4. She denied having been at home that evening. 5. He enjoyed talking of the pleasures of traveling. 6. Excuse my leaving you at such a moment. 7. Please forgive my interfering. 8. He gave up smoking a few years ago. 9. They went on talking. 10. He keeps insisting on my going to the south. 11. Oh, please, do stop laughing. 12. Do you mind my asking you a difficult question? 13. Would you mind coming again in a day or two? 14. I don’t mind wearing this dress. 15. She couldn’t help smiling.16. I cannot put off doing this translation. 17. Though David was tired, he went on walking in the direction of Dover.


№ 47 . Переведите на английский язык, употребляя герундий.


1. Наконец они перестали смеяться. 2. Она отрицала, что украла деньги. 3. Давайте отложим поездку на дачу до следующей субботы. 4. Простите, что я потерял вашу ручку. 5. Когда она закончит писать сочинение? 6. Я не возражаю против того, чтобы остаться дома и поработать над моим переводом. 7. Перестаньте дрожать. Избегайте показывать этим людям, что вы их боитесь.8 Я не могу не беспокоиться о них: они престали писать. 9. Я не отрицаю, что видели их в тот вечер. 10. Он не возражал против того, чтобы его осмотрели: он перестал притворяться, что здоров. 11. Он не может меня простить за то, что я порвал его сумку. 12. Перестаньте разговаривать. 13. Мы закончили работу над этой проблемой. 14. Продолжайте петь. 15. Вы не против того, чтобы открыть окно? 16. Oн отрицал свое участие в преступлении. 17. Я очень люблю рисовать. 18. Мы получили удовольствие от плавания. 19. Я не могла не согласиться с ним. 20. Он рассмеялся. 21. Она бросила курить. 22. Она избегала встречи с ним. 23. Мы отложим обсуждение доклада.


№ 48. Замените выделенные части предложений герундиальными оборотами, употребляя, где необходимо, соответствующие предлоги.


1. I am told that you are very busy. 2. Do you mind if I smoke here? 3. Will you object if I close the door? 4. Thank you that you did id. 5. My teacher insists that I should read aloud every day. 6. Will Mary have anything against it if I take her umbrella for some time? 7. I remember that I have seen this picture somewhere. 8. That you are against John’s proposal does not mean that I must decline it. 9. That fact that you took English lessons some years ago helps you in your studies now.


№ 49. Переведите на английский язык, употребляя герундий.


1. Вы не возражаете, если я пойду гулять? 2. Я не могу не бояться. 3. Она жаловалась на то, что у нее нет времени. 4. Продолжайте работать. 5. Я настаиваю на том, чтобы повидать друга. 6. Мама возражает против того, что я играю в футбол. 7. Он жалуется на то, что я ему не помог. 8. Мы оставили мысль о покупке новой мебели. 9. Она боялась, что ее накажут. 10. Перестаньте разговаривать. 11. Я не отрицаю, что был там вчера. 12. Я одобряю ваше желание учить немецкий язык.


№ 50 . Поставьте глаголы в скобках в правильную форму (либо infinitive либо gerund).


Yesterday I went with my sister 1)…….. (buy) something for her birthday. She didn’t really know what 2)………(get) but she seemed 3)……… (like) the idea of a pet, so we went to the nearest pet shop. She started 4)………(look) around at all the animals. The man in the shop let her 5)……….(pick up) the rabbits and stroke the hamsters, but when she saw some puppies 6)………. (play) in the box, she said that she would like 7)………. (have) one of them. I didn’t know if we had enough money 8)………..(buy) one and I hoped my mother wouldn’t object 9)……..(have) a dog in the house, but my sister promised 10)……….. (look after) it properly and we did have enough money, so we bought a little brown dog. The man gave us a special brush for 11)……….(brush) him and some special food. Tomorrow we’re going to take Splash to the beach.


№ 51. Употребите глаголы в скобках в форме инфинитива или герундия.


Yukie Hanue is considered by many (1)………..(be) the finest violinist of her generation – and she’s still in her twenties. When we visited her, in the music department of the University of New York, she was too busy practicing (2)………(talk), but she invited us (3)……….(have) a coffee with her in the mid morning break. Astonishingly, she manages (4)………(combine) her PhD at the university with international concerts and recitals, numerous public appearances and interviews. She evidently thrives on the workload, buzzing around the place with an industrious enthusiasm that leaves us all breathless. Her fame as a performer means (5)………..(make) regular appearances at high profile events.

Last month, for example, she agreed (6)………(appear) in a series of recitals organized by Coca-Cola. This involves (7)………..(travel) to far-flung places like Seoul, Oslo and Montevideo on successive days, a schedule which would have caused any normal person to wilt. «I can’t stand (8)………..(do) nothing,» she says. «I happen (9)………..(have) a particular talent, and it would be wasteful not (10)…………(exploit) it to the full.» I encouraged her (11)…….(tell) me about her upbringing, but she was rather reticent to sing her own praises. I did, however, succeed in persuading her (12)………….(confess) to a secret desire. «If I hadn’t been a musician, I would have lived to train (13)…………(become) a martial arts expert,» she says. Certainly, she would have had the discipline, but I couldn’t imagine someone so physically frail actually (14)…………(stand) there hitting someone. But it was an interesting revelation, and one that I was (15)……….(learn) more about during my day with her.



  Active Passive
Present asking being asked
Past - asked
Perfect having asked having been asked


1) The problem being discussed at the conference must be solved. – Проблема, обсуждаемая (которая обсуждается) на конференции, должна быть решена.

2) Having been translated by the students before, the texts did not seem difficult for them. – Так как тексты были переведены слушателями раньше, они не казались им трудными.



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