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ВРЕМЕНА ГРУППЫ PERFECT




Времена группы Perfect указывают на законченность действия к определенному моменту времени в настоящем, прошедшем или будущем. Все времена группы Perfect обычно переводятся на русский язык совершенным видом.

to have + -ed (III форма глагола/Participle II)

Present Perfect Past Perfect Future Perfect
I have written I had written I shall have written
he has written he had written he will have written
she has written she had written she will have written
it has written it had written it will have written
     
we have written we had written we shall have written
you have written you had written you will have written
they have written they had written they will have written

Вопросительная форма

Present Perfect Past Perfect Future Perfect
Have I written? Had I written? Shall I have written?
Has he written? Had he written? Will he have written?
Has she written? Had she written? Will she have written?
Has it written? Had it written? Will it have written?
     
Have we written? Had we written? Shall we have written?
Have you written? Had you written? Will you have written?
Have they written? Had they written? Will they have written?

Отрицательная форма

Present Perfect Past Perfect Future Perfect
I have not written I had not written I shall not have written
he has not written he had not written he will not have written
she has not written she had not written she will not have written
it has not written it had not written it will not have written
     
we have not written we had not written we shall not have written
you have not written you had not written you will not have written
they have not written they had not written they will not have written

Present Perfect употребляется с обстоятельствами времени: ever – когда-либо, never – никогда, just – только что, already – уже, (not) yet – еще нет, today – сегодня, this week – на этой неделе, all this time – все это время, since – с, for – в течение.



Past Perfect, Future Perfect употребляются с обстоятельствами времени: by 7 o’clock – к 7 часам, before – до того как, прежде чем.

 

Упражнения

1. Прочитайте и переведите текст:

A. 1. This is a very good book, I have just read it with pleasure. 2. I haven't seen you for a long time. Where have you been? 3. We haven't heard about you since 1989. 4. I haven't seen you for ages. 5. We haven't been to Moscow since last year. 6. Have you ever been to London? 7. Don't forget to post a letter! –I have already posted it. 8. He told me his name but I've forgotten it.

B. 1. We were not hungry. We had just had lunch. 2. The house was dirty. They hadn't cleaned it for weeks. 3. Karen didn't want to come to the cinema because she had already seen the film. 4. I didn't know who she was. I'd never seen her before. 5. By the beginning of the lecture the laboratory assistant had brought all the necessary diagrams. 6. Last month Lavrov had to go on business to London. Before he went there he had discussed some business matters with his managing director and got the necessary instructions from him.

C. 1. The film will have finished by 3p.m. 2. Sally won't be at home at 9. She will have gone to work. 3. We are late. The film will already have started by the time we get to the cinema. 4. Phone me after 8 o'clock. We'll have finished dinner by then. 5. Will you be free at 11.30? - Yes, the meeting will have finished by that time.

 

2. Поставьте глаголы в соответствующем времени:

1. I never (was/have been) to London. 2. I (have played/played) tennis yesterday afternoon. 3. John works in a bookstore. He (has worked/worked) there for three years. 4. I still don't know what to do. I (didn't decide/haven't decided) yet. 5. When I was a child I (haven't liked/didn't like) sports. 6. How well do you know Bill? - Very well. We (knew/have known) each other since we were children. 7. We were all surprised when they got married last year. They (knew/had known) each other only for a few weeks. 8. They (will pass/will have passed) their exams by the time you return.

 

3. Переведите на английский язык:

1. Он написал письмо до того, как пришел. 2. Он написал письмо вчера. 3. Он уже написал письмо. 4. Он писал письмо, когда я пришел. 5. К семи часам я закончу эту работу. 6. Она сделает упражнение через несколько минут.

 

4. Заполните пропуски глаголами в соответствующей форме. Переведите предложения:

1. A. Hello, Peter. I haven’t seen you for ages. Where you (to be) all this time?

B. I just (to come back) from Odessa. I ( to be) there on business.

A. Nick (to be) there now. You (to see) him during your trip?

B. I did. As a matter of fact I (to meet) him in the airport when I (to leave) the city. He (to send) his best regards to you.

A. Thank you.

 

2. A. I understand, Mr Ali, you (to be) in Moscow for a week already.

B. Let me see. Yes, we (to be) here since Monday. We (to have) talks all this time.

A. You (to see) any places of interest yet?

B. Yes, some. Your friends (to take) us to the Pushkin Art Museum yesterday and we (to go) to the Bolshoy tonight.

A. You (to be) to the exhibition in Sokolniki park?

B. No, not yet. But we (to visit) your plant the day before.

 

Текст №1

Now we have come to Gorky Street. It is a beautiful street with all kinds of office-buildings, hotels, theatres, cinemas, shops, restaurants and cafes. That large building over there is a hotel. In front of the hotel we can see several buses and cars. A big bus has just brought a number of people from the airport and among them we can see a friend of mine, Tom. It is the first time he has come to Moscow.

Tom has been in Moscow for a few days, but he has already seen a lot of things. He has visited some of the best museums and theatres. He has seen a ballet at the theatre. I have taken him for a walk in the Kremlin and also to some of the new parts of the capital. My brother has shown him some of the underground stations and today they both have been to an international football match at the Luzhniki sports grounds.

All has made a great impression on Tom.

 

ВРЕМЕНА ГРУППЫ PERFECT PROGRESSIVE

Времена группы Perfect Progressive указывают на то, что действие продолжалось в течение некоторого периода времени до определенного момента в настоящем, прошедшем или будущем и может продолжаться в данный момент.

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