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ВРЕМЕНА ГЛАГОЛА В СТРАДАТЕЛЬНОМ ЗАЛОГЕ




(PASSIVE VOICE)

Страдательный залог указывает, что лицо или предмет не само совершает действие, а испытывает воздействие со стороны другого лица или предмета.

to be + -ed (III форма глагола/Participle II)

Present Indefinite Past Indefinite Future Indefinite
I am asked. Меня спрашивают. I was asked. Меня спросили. I shall be asked. Меня спросят.
He is asked. Его спрашивают. He was asked. Его спросили. He will be asked. Его спросят.
She is asked. Ее спрашивают. She was asked. Ее спросили. She will be asked. Ее спросят.
It is asked. It was asked. It will be asked.
     
We are asked. Нас спрашивают. We were asked. Нас спросили. We shall be asked. Нас спросят.
You are asked. Вас спрашивают. You were asked. Вас спросили. You will be asked. Вас спросят.
They are asked. Их спрашивают. They were asked. Их спросили. They will be asked. Их спросят.

Вопросительная форма:

Present Indefinite Past Indefinite Future Indefinite
Am I asked? Меня спрашивают? Was I asked? Меня спросили? Shall I be asked? Меня спросят?
Is he asked? Его спрашивают? Was he asked? Его спросили? Will he be asked? Его спросят?
Is she asked? Ее спрашивают? Was she asked? Ее спросили? Will she be asked? Ее спросят?
Is it asked? Was it asked? Will it be asked?
     
Are we asked? Нас спрашивают? Were we asked? Нас спросили? Shall we be asked? Нас спросят?
Are you asked? Вас спрашивают? Were you asked? Вас спросили? Will you be asked? Вас спросят?
Are they asked? Их спрашивают? Were they asked? Их спросили? Will they be asked? Их спросят?

Отрицательная форма:



Present Indefinite Past Indefinite Future Indefinite
I am not asked. Меня не спрашивают. I was not asked. Меня не спросили I shall not be asked. Меня не спросят.
He is not asked. Его не спрашивают. He was not asked. Его не спросили. He will not be asked. Его не спросят.
She is not asked. Ее не спрашивают. She was not asked. Ее не спросили. She will not be asked. Ее не спросят.
It is not asked. It was not asked. It will not be asked.
     
We are not asked. Нас не спрашивают. We were not asked. Нас не спросили. We shall not be asked. Нас не спросят.
You are not asked. Вас не спрашивают. You were not asked. Вас не спросили. You will not be asked. Вас не спросят.
They are not asked. Их не спрашивают. They were not asked. Их не спросили. They will not be asked. Их не спросят.

 

Действительный залог Страдательный залог
1. We study many interesting subjects at the Institute. 1. Many interesting subjects are studied by us at the Institute.
2 I wrote the letter 2. The letter was written by me.
3. We shall finish the work tomorrow. 3. The work will be finished by us tomorrow.

 

Упражнения

1. Прочитайте и переведите предложения:

a) 1. I invite my friend to the theatre. I am invited to the theatre. 2. I see him in the library. He is seen there. 3. I told her to come here. She was told to come here. 4. He helps me with my work. I am often helped with my work.

b) 1. This translation was done by the students yesterday. 2. This translation will be done again by me. 3. Her articles are often pub­lished in this magazine. 4. This story will be retold by the teacher. 5. Many interesting books were written by this writer.

c) 1. She is liked by everybody. 2. You are asked for on the telephone. 3. You are looked at. 4. He was seen at the theatre. 5. The book is much spoken about. 6. We were told to take part in the conference.

 

2.Прочитайте и переведите предложения:

1. My friend was not met at the airport. 2. What problems were discussed at the last meeting? 3. The machines will not be tested next week. 4. When will you be asked by your teacher? 5. The cable wasn’t answered immediately. 6. The contract isn’t signed. 7. Are you often invited to the theaters? 8. This exhibition isn’t held in Great Britain. 9. Mr. Brown wasn’t invited to the restaurant. 10. Were the inspectors invited to the plant? 11. The film wasn’t shown on television on Friday.

 

3.Напишите следующие предложения в страдательном залоге:

1. I took him around the city. 2. She will forget your telephone number. 3. We shall book tickets tomorrow. 4. We met her at the corner of the street. 5. We discuss such problems at our meetings. 6. They will build a new cinema in this street. 7. A young architect designed that beautiful building.

 

4. Поставьте предложения в отрицательную и вопросительную форму:

1. I am invited to the party. 2. He was asked many questions. 3. The article will be written. 4. The room is cleaned. 5. The house was built in 1803.

 

5. Переведите на английский язык:

1. Его просят прийти пораньше. 2. Много новых домов будет построено на этой улице. 3. Об этой картине много говорят. 4. Эти лекции посещаются нами регулярно. 5. Эта работа будет закончена скоро. 6. Это задание выполнено мною. 7. Ее будут слушать с интересом. 8. Его приглашение было принято нами.

 

Текст №1

Petrov, head of the Russian delegation, and his colleagues were invited to India to give recommendations on the construction site for a new plant. All the arrangements for their trip were made by the customers. They booked first-class tickets on the 8 o’clock express. It was a very convenient train. Their compartment was air-conditioned and the experts enjoyed the trip. On the way they read illustrated magazines and newspapers, talked and looked out of the window of their carriage. The Russian experts were met by the chief engineer and taken to the local hotel.

The next day the Russian experts saw the construction site and had talks all day long. In the evening they were invited to a restaurant. When they came to the restaurant the waiter showed them to the table. They looked at the menu, chose the dishes and the waiter took their order. The dinner was wonderful and everybody was pleased with it. The customer’s representative paid the bill and they left the restaurant.

 

Текст №2

A lot of people travel for pleasure or on business today. Some people are interested in art, and they visit picture galleries and museums. Others are fond of historical buildings and monuments.

Every country is proud of its history, culture, customs and traditions. Foreign visitors are offered tours to different parts of Russia. All necessary arrangements for the tours are made in advance: air, ship or railway tickets are booked, accommodation is reserved and meals are provided. Foreign guests are accompanied by experienced guides who do their best to make our guests’ stay in Russia interesting and useful. Trips to Russia give them an opportunity to know the country and the people better.

 

КОНСТРУКЦИЯ THERE IS…/ THERE ARE…

Конструкция There is…/There are… употребляется для указания на наличие или отсутствие какого-либо лица или предмета в определенном месте. На русский язык конструкция переводится словами «имеется», «находится», «лежит» или не переводится.

There is an apple on the plate. There are apples on the plate.

На тарелке (имеется) яблоко. На тарелке (имеются) яблоки.

Если в предложении имеется обстоятельство, то перевод начинается с этого обстоятельства:

  IV
There is a book on the table
 
On the table there is a book

На столе есть (имеется) книга.

При отсутствии обстоятельства перевод предложения начинается с самой конструкции.

При наличии нескольких подлежащих “be” согласуется с подлежащим, которое следует непосредственно за ним.

There is a teacher and ten students in the room.

There are ten students and a teacher in the room.

В вопросительном предложении глагол to be ставится перед словом there.

There is a cat in the room. There are English books in the library.

В комнате есть кошка. В библиотеке есть английские книги.

Is there a cat in the room? Are there English books in the library?

В комнате есть кошка? В библиотеке есть английские книги?

 

В отрицательном предложении после глагола to be обычно ставится отрицание no.

There is no cat in the room. There are no English books in the library.

В комнате нет кошки. В библиотеке нет английских книг.

 

Упражнения

1. Прочитайте и переведите предложения:

1. There is a car in the street. 2. There are two cats in the box. 3. There are students in the classroom. 4. There are many children in the park. 5. There are two English books on my desk. 6. There are three cars of modern design in front of the office. 7. There are three bookshops in our street. 8. There are a lot of plants in the town. 9. There are a lot of flowers in the park. 10. There are few big offices in that street. 11. There are various books in this bookcase.

 

2.Прочитайте и переведите предложения:

1. Is there a table in the middle of the room? 2. There are no gardens in Pushkin Street. 3. Is there a bookcase in your room? 4. There are no offices in Pushkin Street. 5. Are there pictures on the walls of your friend’s room? 6. In front of the shop-window there are not many boys. 7. Is there a shop in your house? 8. Is there a plant in your street?

 

3. Поставьте предложения в отрицательную и вопросительную форму:

1. There are many monuments in our town. 2. There is a car in the street.

3. There are many engineers in our firm. 4. There is a TV-set in my sitting-room.

4. Раскройте скобки:

1. There (is, are) a large table in my room. 2. There (is, are) three windows in my room. 3. There (is, are) a table and four chairs in my sister’s room. 4. There (is, are) a blackboard, a table and many chairs in our class-room. 5. There (is, are) many pencils and a pen in my bag. 6. There (is, are) a text-book and two exercise-books on my table.

 

5. Переведите на английский язык:

1. В нашем городе много школ и институтов. 2. В нашей группе много студентов. 3. В этой комнате три окна. 4. На столе лежит газета. 5. В комнате нет мебели. 6. На столе учебник. 7. Около моего дома есть школа.

 

Текст №1

My room is not large, it is small. In the middle of the room there is a round table. There are four chairs near it. There is a sofa near the wall to the left. There is a carpet on the floor near the sofa. There are two arm-chairs near a little table. There is a radio set on this little table. In the corner there is a bookcase. Are there any books in the bookcase? Yes, there are. There are many books in it. Is there a large window in the room?

 

Текст №2

My name is Boris Petrov. I am a physicist. I have a very nice flat in a new block of flats. There is a sitting-room, a study and two bedrooms in my flat. There is a kitchen and a bathroom too.

My sitting-room is large and light. There is a big window with curtains. There is a thick carpet on the floor. The carpet is brown. The walls of the sitting-room are yellow and the ceiling is white.

In the left-hand corner there is a TV set and two armchairs. The armchairs are very comfortable.

In the right-hand corner there is a piano. There is a vase on the piano. There are some flowers in the vase. They are red, white, yellow and blue. Near the wall there is a sofa, a lamp and a table. There are two nice pictures above the sofa.

There are two beds, two bedside tables, two chairs and a wardrobe in my bedroom.

My study is small. There is a desk with a telephone and a desk-lamp on it. There is an armchair at the desk. There is a bookcase in the corner. There are a lot of books and magazines there.

 

Текст №3

Many English families have got their own houses, but some people live in flats. There are two floors in the traditional English house: the ground floor and the first floor. People in England like their homes and always show them to their visitors.

Mr. Dunn, a British businessman, often comes to the Russian Trade Delegation and he knows Voronin very well. One Sunday he invites Voronin and some engineers to his place to spend an evening with his family.

Mr. Dunn’s family lives in a small house with a garden. There is a sitting-room and a study downstairs. The kitchen is downstairs too. The sitting-room is large and sunny. There is a sofa, two armchairs and a coffee table, a standard lamp, and a colour TV-set. Above the coffee table there is a nice wall-lamp. A green carpet on the floor makes the room comfortable.

In the kitchen there is an electric cooker, a refrigeration with a freezer, a dish-washer and a cupboard. Mrs. Dunn has got a lot of dishes: plates, cups, glasses and a many knives, forks and spoons.

The study is a room with bookshelves on the walls. Upstairs there are two bedrooms and a bathroom.

The study is a small room with bookshelves on the walls. Upstairs there are two bedrooms and a bathroom.

The Dunns love their house and think: “There is no place like home”.

 

МОДАЛЬНЫЕ ГЛАГОЛЫ

Модальные глаголы выражают способность, разрешение, необходимость, возможность и т. п. Основные глаголы этой группы: can, may, must.

1. Глагол can – мочь, уметь. Выражает возможность или способность совершения действия.

Форма прошедшего времени – could.

2. Глагол may – можно. Выражает разрешение выполнять действия.

Форма прошедшего времени – might.

3. Глагол must – должен. Выражает долженствование или необходимость совершения действия.

Формы прошедшего времени нет.

Основные признаки этой группы глаголов:

а) окончание –s в 3 лице ед. числа настоящего простого времени отсутствует:

She can write. Bob must go home.

Она умеет писать. Боб должен идти домой.

б) следующий за модальным глагол в начальной форме употребляется без частицы to:

I can read. You may open the door.

Я могу читать. Вы можете открыть дверь.

в) вопросительная и отрицательная формы образуются без вспомогательного глагола:

Can you speak English? – No, I can’t.

May I open the window? – No, you may not.

 

Упражнения

1. Прочитайте и переведите предложения:

а) 1. I can show you an interesting picture of this city. 2. His brother could play the piano very well. 3. She could translate these English texts.

б) 1. We must attend a lecture on German History on Tuesday. 2. You must return my magazines on Wednesday. 3. You must take your children to the country for the week-end. 4. I must go to see my grandmother on my day off.

в) 1. You may discuss these questions after work. 2. They may take four magazines from that shelf. 3. She may sit on the sofa in my study. 4. He may leave Moscow on Saturday.

 

2. Прочитайте и переведите предложения:

1. Can you name the days of the week? 2. May I speak to you now? 3. I cannot go to the lecture today because I feel bad. 4. Can you take books from the library? 5. May I go out? 6. Can I come in? 7. You mustn’t be late for classes. 8. May I come in? 9. Can I take your textbook? 10. May I smoke here? 11. Must we air the classroom now? 12. I’m sorry, I cannot help you now. 13. May I have a cup of coffee? 14. Must I read or translate? 15. May I take this book, please? 16. Which of us must be on duty in the workshop today? 17. May I have a glass of milk?

3. Поставьте предложения в отрицательную и вопросительную форму:

1. I can do the work. 2. She must go. 3. He may come in. 4. He can speak English well. 5. We must work at our project today.

4. Переведите на английский язык:

1. Я не могу вам помочь. 2. Мы можем прийти завтра. 3. Мы должны писать и читать каждый день. 4. Он может говорить по-английски? 5. Мне можно войти? 6. Можно мне взять эту ручку? – Да можно. 7. Они не могут дать нам эти книги.

 

Текст №1

Today is Jane’s first day at work. She must leave the house at 8 o’clock as she must be at the office a little earlier than 9 to get ready for her work and bring the mail. She has a lot of duties at the office. She must work hard till one o’clock. She can go out for lunch but she must be back at the office at 2 o’clock. She must type different documents, answer telephone calls, make appointments and do many other things.

Текст №2

This is the library of an institute of Foreign Languages in the library. We can see bookshelves full of books. You can find all sorts of books in foreign languages here. In the middle of the room there is a large table. On the table we can see a number of foreign newspapers and magazines.

Mike must get some books here to make a report. He can make his report in English because his English is not poor. He may take any English books and dictionaries here.

 

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