COMPOUND AND COMPLEX SENTENCES
Ex 679. Analyse the following sentences
1. He came, he saw, he won. 2. Man has his will, but woman has her way. 3. Mr. Dursley hummed as he picked out his most boring tie for work,and Mrs. Dursley gossiped away happily. 4. He couldn't bear people who dressed in funny clothes — the getups you saw on young people! 5. Paul was in a very good mood until lunchtime, when he thought he'd stretch his legs and walk across the road to buy himself a bun from the bakery. 6. He laid the baby gently on the doorstep, took a letter out of his cloak, tucked it inside the blankets, and then walked away. 7. Mrs. Figg gave him a bit of chocolate cake that tasted as though she'd had it for several years. 8. Questions exploded inside Nikita's head like fireworks and he couldn't decide which to ask first. 9. We are pleased to inform you that you have been accepted to our school. 10. He realized his mouth was open and he closed it quickly.
Ex. 680. State the type of the subordinate clause.
1.1 realized that they had fallen in love. 2. If you are successful, people will forgive you practically everything. 3. Will you be still using the computer when I come back to the office after lunch? 4. If you've got the means of getting something done , use it. 5. This afternoon Martha was late for the lecture because she had had a sleepless night. 6. It was an absolutely freezing day when we arrived in Moscow. 7. Although she was extremely surprised she didn't show any sign of it. 8. Since he had lost the keys, he had to break down the door. 9. As he had no alarm clock, he overslept. 10. Once they had found somewhere to park, they were able to have dinner. 11. The waiter served the food, which had been cooked by the best chef in Paris. 12. The police are looking for the woman, who had kidnapped the child. 13. They ran to the spot where they had hidden the money. 14. Watch your every step lest you should get into trouble. 15. They were so poor that they couldn't make both ends meet. 16. Sophia behaves as if the world were at her feet. 17. Should you change your mind, let us know. 18.1 woke to find rain streaming down the windows. 19. He had come so close that he and Frank were almost nose to nose. 20. It seemed as if he had been wanting to say all this for years.
Ex.681.Insert what, that or which.
1.1 tried to decide ... I wanted most: the meal or sleep. 2. Don't worry! I'll do ... I can. 3. Nobody will believe ... it's true. 4. Where are the coins ... were in the box? 5. We haven't got the clue ... you are talking about. 6. Why do you blame me for the things ... go wrong? 7. — Did you hear ... I said? — No, ... was it? 8. Nobody knows ... he is like. 9. Relax, ... is no problem. 10. Why can't you tell me ... the problem is? 11. We fully believe ... she speaks the truth. 12. That is ... counts in the long run. 13. The book says one thing and you say another: I don't know ... to believe. 14. People are ... they think they are. 15. You can find ... you want to find in any situation.
16. One of the laws of life states ... by expressing love, you attract love. 17. Just imagine, how much there is ... we don't know, ... remains hidden from us.
Ex. 682.Translate into English
1. Есть еще один последний вопрос, который я хотела бы задать вам. 2. Мы очень сомневаемся, что то, что она говорит, верно. 3. Это именно то, что я давно твер жу тебе! 4. Ты не понимаешь, что ты делаешь, что очень печально. 5. Трудоголик! Вот кто ты! 6. Моя сестра работает в торговом центре, который как раз за углом. 7. — Разве ты не знаешь, что он всегда делает то, что хочет? — Это не так, он бывает очень гибок. 8. Мне требуется час от двери до двери, что не так уж и плохо в большом городе. 9. Ты прочитал мою мысль. Это было то, что я собирался сказать. 10. Родители Вадима совершенно уверены, что то, что он выбрал себе в качестве будущей карьеры, не то, что ему действительно стоит делать. 11. И затем я произнес первые слова, которые пришли мне на ум. 12. — Это именно то, что произошло. — Какая досада! 13. Что нас поразило, так это то, что он совсем не чувствовал себя виноватым. 14. — Дела вскоре пойдут лучше. Именно для этого и существует завтра. — Да, утро вечера мудренее. 15. Комитет обсуждает сегодня условия, которые существуют в английских школах. 16. Быть или не быть? — вот в чем вопрос.
Ex. 683.Use whatever, whoever, wherever, whenever, whichever, however.
1. Use ... of the three alternatives is appropriate. 2. We'd drive ... I wanted to go. 3. ... you do,don't take a trip to the Arctic. 4. Come to see me ... you feel you have to talk. 5. ... , it was not to be. 6. You can do it ... you want. 7. He came into our lives, or we came into his, ... way you care to look at it. 8. — Let's go away. — ... to? 9. I have to bring my family back ... happens. 10. ... you are, my heart will go on beating for you. 11. ... strong the temptation, don't stay at any job too long. 12. Then they have their lunch, have a chat, have a sleep, ... they like, up in the lounge. 13. ... have you been? 14. ... the reason, we were glad she had come back. 15.1 avoided physical conflict ... I could. 16. ... you think about it, keep it to yourself. 17. ... I remember her face, it is smiling or laughing. 18. ... hard she tried, she couldn't remember the first time they had met. 19. ... I go on holiday, I always seem to be unlucky with the weather. 20. ... you are, you are not to order people about. 21. Come out, ... you are!
Ex. 684.Make up complex sentences by combining the two parts with the help of because or even though. Make any necessary changes to the second part.
Ex. 685.Combine the two sentences into one sentence using so, so that, because (of), as, since.
I. The traffic was very heavy. I was an hour late. 2. The plants died. It was very dry. 3. The light was very bad. The referee had to stop the game. 4. The weather was terrible. We couldn't eat outside. 5. She got the job. Her qualifications are excellent. 6.1 didn't phone you. Your number was engaged. 7. It's a very large city. You have to use public transport a lot. 8. The restaurant was full-We went to the bar next door. 9. Nelly stayed at home. She expected a phone call. 10.1 learned to drive. My mother doesn't have to give me a lift to the office-II. Michael went home early. He was feeling tired-12. The power was cut last night. I missed the late film on TV.
Ex. 686. A. Use one of the two conjunctions to complete the itences according to the meaning of the second part.
B. Use the sentences which you have made up in past time xts.
e.g. / took an umbrella in case it was raining (so that I wouldn't get wet).
Ex. 687,Insert prepositions of time.
1. I will stay here ... she phones. 2. They will be in the office ... four o'clock. 3. Dad will be home ... lunchtime. 4. Mr. Bush has worked in this office ... six months. 5. We've been here ... May. 6. David worked in the Middle East ... the war. 7. The lecturer spoke ... two hours nonstop. 8. I'm going back to my college ... ten days' time. 9. We arranged our next meeting ... April. 10. Tanya has known her hairdresser ... ages. 11. We can't leave ... the others get back. 12. My cousin has been in the army ... he was eighteen. 13. Tony was at University ... five years. 14. It was hot ... August. 15. The Ivanovs haven't been to their country cottage ... a fortnight. 16. You can't get a driving licence ... you pass the test. 17. Let us know ... you get the e-mail. 18. ... make up your mind, there will be no going back.
Ex. 688.Choose the conjunction which fits the meaning of the sentence. In some cases more than one will fit.
1. (As, As though, As soon as) it is getting late, I suggest we break off now. 2. Nobody is to leave (until, unless, since) I say so. 3. He arrived (just as, as long as, as far as) I was leaving. 4. She cried out (although, as though, as if) she had been stung by a wasp. 5. Call in and say hello (whenever, however, wherever) you are in town. 6. (Since, Seeing that, In case) nobody else seems to want these sandwiches, I'll eat them. 7. (As soon as, Since, Now that) you leave school, you'll be able to get a good job. 8. (As far as, So that, Once) I can see, he has no intention of paying the bill. 9. Stay in your flat (as far as, until, since) somebody sends for you. 10. (Once, Whenever, After) you have driven a Porsche, you will never want to drive any other car. 11. You will never make friends (if, when, unless) you go out and meet people. 12. We'll invite Chris and Mary, (considering, supposing, assuming) that they are interested. 13. (As, When, If) you think it is necessary, send him some more money. 14. Please don t talk (while, whenever, now that) the concert has begun 15.1 do not trust him (as though, even though, although) I do business with him. 16. What were you doing (while, as, after) I was travelling around Europe? 17. What will you do (after, once, now that) the course is nearly over?
Ex. 689.Make one sentence out of the two with a subordinate attributive clause.
Model: The air surrounds us. It consists of various elements — The air which/that surrounds us consists of various elements. The assistant was very helpful. He served me. — The assistant who/that served me was very helpful.
1. The plate was very old. The servant broke it. 2. The climate is warm. It prevails in Italy. 3. The water was very cold. I bathed in it yesterday. 4. Show me the book. You have read it. 5. The ship was very small. Columbus crossed the Atlantic in it. 6. The palace is very beautiful. The Queen lives in it. 7. I had some money on me. I gave it to a beggar. 8. The picture was very fine. The artist took a long time to paint it. 9. The sun is far away. Our light comes from it. 10. The bridge is very high. I passed over it yesterday. 11. The plane was British. It was hijacked. 12. The company collapsed. It was involved in the scandal. 13. The cathedral was rebuilt. It was bombed during the war. 14. The tooth will have to be extracted. It's hurting you. 15. The rocket is going to the moon. It was launched yesterday. 16. The girl turned me down. I asked her to marry me. 17. The composer was blind. He wrote this music. 18. The man was a crook. He sold me the car. 19. The man was an old friend. He bumped into me. 20. The woman is going to appear in court as a witness. She saw the accident.
Ex. 690. Link the sentences with relative clauses omitting who or which where possible.
1.1 know the company. Jack works for it. 2.1 met a woman. She lives next door to Tina. 3. We are going to see the new James Bond film. Everybody is talking about it. 4. Susan reads a lot of books. They tell you how to be a success in business. 5. Look! There's the new teacher. I told you about her. 6. I'm wearing the leather jacket. My mother gave it to me on my birthday. 7. Did you meet the writer? He won the Booker Prize last year. 8. Have you been to this boutique? It has very trendy clothes. 9.1 took my son to my parents' house. He was one year old. 10. She wanted to see her friends. They were on an expedition in the North. 11.1 have to study mathematics. I do not enjoy it. 12. Can that be Mr. Bridgeman? We used to work with him. 13. This is the Director. He founded the company. 14. They went to see the flat. They lived in it when they were students. 15. The man is the manager. You spoke to him. 16. The woman is married. He's fallen in love with her. 17. The girl is one of his students. He's going out with her. 18. The course was a waste of time. I went on it.
Ex. 691.Make up complex sentences out of the two parts. Put in whom only when it is necessary.
Ex 692. A. Complete the sentences by using attributive clauses ording to the model.
Model: I like to visit places which I've never visited.
1. I like to visit places where ... .2. I like to eat food that... . 3. I like to stay in hotels whose prices ... . 4. I like to travel with people who ... . 5. I like to meet people with whom ....
6. I don't like tourists whose behaviour ... . 7. I detest questions that... .
B. Ask a classmate the following questions and discuss the swers according to the model.
Model: What kind of person makes a good friend? — A person who is honest and loyal makes a good friend.
1. What kind of person is impolite? 2. What kind of person bores and annoys you? 3. What kind of person makes a good teacher? 4. What kind of person makes a good language learner? 5. What kind of person succeeds in business? 6. What kind of person succeeds as a politician? An artist? A doctor? 7. What kind of person would you like to marry? 8. What kind of country would you like to travel to? 9. What kind of town or city would you like to live in? 10. What kind of school would you like to send your child to? 11. What kind of car would you like to own? 12. What kind of clothes do you like to wear?
Ex 693. Translate into English.
1. По вечерам мы обсуждаем события, которые произошли с нами за день. 2. Никто не знает людей, которые приезжали сюда вчера. 3. Брак, который не
основан на взаимопонимании, длится недолго. 4. В Ста рой Руссе мы посетили дом, в котором жил Ф. Достоевский. 5. Родители, чьи дети только что закончили школу, были счастливы. 6. Самое лучшее, что ты можешь сделать, — это хорошо выспаться. 7. Я получил удовольствие от книги, которая учит нас воспринимать мир философски. 8. Мальчик, который сбежал из дома неделю назад, вчера благополучно вернулся домой. 9. Вот дом, в котором я родился. 10. Мой брат, которому всего лишь восемнадцать лет, собирается жениться. 11. Есть очень много обычаев и традиций, которые восходят к древним временам. 12. В Лондоне мы отправились осматривать достопримечательности, о которых так много читали. 13. Отец Линды, который работает в нефтяном бизнесе, хочет, чтобы она стала его правой рукой. 14. Д. Роулинг — английская писательница, чьи романы стали национальными бестселлерами в 1997 и 1998 годах. 15. Трудно сказать, что он может предпринять. 16. Люди, с которыми я работаю, очень доброжелательны.
Ex. 694. A. Answer the questions according to the model.
Model: What do we call a person who/that plays in the streets for money? — A person who/that plays in the streets for money is called a busker.
What do we call a person who/that:
1. performs operations? 2. repairs cars? 3. teaches grammar? 4. performs magic?
5. never eats meat? 6. eats only fruit? 7. can't get off drugs? 8. never drinks alcohol?
9. studies the planets and stars? 10. wears ordinary clothes and investigates crimes?
B. Describe the following things according to the model.
Model: a television — A television is a box which/ that shows moving pictures.
1. a radio 2. a camera 3. a Xerox 4. a thermometer 5. a computer 6. an umbrella 7. a printer 8. a disco 9. a calendar 10. a cruise 11. the Internet 12. a microwave
Ex 695. Complete the following phrases. Use the necessary pronoun consult the dictionary.
1. A swot (a nerd) is someone ... .2. A sorcerer is someone ... .3. A busker is a person ... .4. A last-minute decision is a decision ... .5. A wizard is a man ... .6. A witch is a woman ... .7. A kilt is a shot tartan skirt... .8. A commuter is a person ... .9. Down-and-outs are people ... .10. A cast off is something ... .11. A genius is a person ... .12. A true find is something ... .13. Optimists are people ... .14. A must is something ... .15. A pessimist is a person ... .16. A good buy is something ... .17. A chocoholic is someone ... .18. Success is something ... .
19. A zenophobe is someone ... .20. Information is something ... .21. A DJ is someone ... .
22. The Internet is something ... .
Ex, 696. Translate into English.
1. Он наконец понял, что назад пути не было. 2. Терпеть не могу, когда ты сплетничаешь о соседях. 3. Нам всегда очень нравится, когда наши друзья навещают
нас. 4. Я считаю это справедливым, что премию получишь именно ты. 5. Многие англичане считают пустой тратой денег выбрасывать еду. 6. Пока Светлана работает, ее свекровь присматривает за детьми. 7. Ничего не предпринимайте, пока не примете окончательного решения. 8. Мы любим тебя, потому что ты это ты. 9. Не успел биолог подойти к клетке, как заметил, что белые мыши вели себя слишком активно. 10. Едва он взглянул на рукопись, как понял, что это уникальная находка. 11. Хотя ты и подводил меня много раз, я все еще верю в тебя. 12. Если будешь в Нью-Йорке в мае, позвони мне. 13. Едва Гарри взглянул на пустую тарелку, как понял, насколько он был голоден. 14. Прежде чем Рита вымолвила слово, старушка исчезла. 15. Думай, что говоришь, чтобы опять не свалять дурака. 16. Я нахожу, что гораздо легче путешествовать, если знаешь языки.
Ex. 697.Translate into English.
В начале своей карьеры Уолт Дисней, человек, сочинивший Микки Мауса и Трёх Маленьких Поросят, был почти неизвестен. Сейчас последнее издание книги «Кто есть кто» называет его в числе самых известных людей в мире.
Живя в Канзасе, Уолт мечтал стать художником. Однако редакторы многих газет и журналов говорили юноше, что у него нет и крупицы таланта, и что его рисунки никуда не годятся. Столь жалким было его существование, что порой ему нечего было есть. В качестве студии он использовал гараж своего отца. И именно это помещение дало ему идею, которая сама по себе стоила миллионы долларов. Произошло это следующим образом. Из маленькой норки в самом дальнем углу деревянного гаража появилась мышка. Не обращая внимания на человека, она принялась бегать и играть. Дисней принёс ей хлебных крошек, и с течением времени мышка так подружилась
с человеком, что стала взбираться на вершину его мольберта.
Позже Дисней отправился в Голливуд, где занялся подготовкой серии мультипликационных фильмов. Тщетны, однако, были все его попытки добиться успеха. Он вновь оказался без денег и без работы. Однажды, сидя в маленькой комнате, он размышлял о своем будущем фильме. И именно в этот момент в его мозгу шевельнулось воспоминание о мышке, которая имела обыкновение забираться на его мольберт в канзасском гараже. Столь живым было его воспоминание, что он тут же стал набрасывать контуры своего друга. Так и родился Микки Маус. Та самая мышка, которой давно нет в живых, стала «прадедушкой» героев многих и многих известных во всем мире фильмов. Однажды Уолт предложил своим сотрудникам экранизировать детскую сказку о трех поросятах и о сером волке, которую в детстве не раз рассказывала ему мать. Никто не предполагал, что фильм будет иметь такой сенсационный успех. Люди распевали от океана до океана мелодию песни «Нам не страшен серый волк!».
Уолт Дисней считал, что успех приходит лишь тогда, когда человек влюблен в свою работу. Ему никогда не импонировала мысль о том, чтобы делать деньги ради денег. Источником истинного вдохновения в его жизни всегда служила работа.
TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE
Ex. 698.Answer the questions.
1. "The government can decide." Is "can" singular or plural? 2. "Bananas are black." "The bananas are black." Are these sentences acceptable? 3. John met Alice and she shot him. Then Alice met Mary and she shot her. Who survived? 4. "And how is our knee today, Mrs. Brown?" Whose knee? 5. "God save the Queen." Is this an order? 6. "What on earth are you doing?" "What are you doing on earth?" Any difference? 7. "Father, we want you to marry us." Explain the context. 8. "Fried, the meat would have been delicious." Was it fried? Was it delicious? 9. "The Boston public have made known their decision." "The Boston public has made known its decision." Which is the more pluralistic society? 10. Why do teachers use rhetorical questions? Is it because they know all the answers? What do you think?
Ex. 699.Correct the mistakes in the following sentences.
1. The news are much better today. 2. What a beautiful weather today! 3. We need some informations. 4. The furnitures are very old. 5. I'm looking for a new jeans. 6. You hairs are getting very long. 7. Do you have a scissors? 8. We had a lot of homeworks last week. 9. Do you think she is making a progress with her English? 10. These trousers is too small. 11. She gave me some good advices. 12. Emily's clothes is so beautiful! 13. We had an interesting work. 14. My money are in the drawer. 15. We need a new furniture. 16. Traffic have been bad throughout the day. 17. Where is my headphone? 18. My watches is fast.
Ex. 700. A. Use the right form of the verbs in brackets.
Books in My Life
Of late I (devote) myself to the study of literature. It (become) clear to me what valuable friends books (be)! They (be) never cross or disagreeable, nor, like false friends, they (flatter). The characters described in the books of the great novelists (become) so real to me that I long (regard) them as my personal friends, and (long) to shake them by the hand. Our friends in life often (disappoint) us, they may go away and forget us, or they (become) our enemies, but we (can) always rely on our books. In life we (be) often disappointed of our dearest hopes, our ambitions (be) not realized, we (lose) our most prized possessions. But nothing (can) ever rob the memory that (be) well stocked with the gems of literature, and even though we (become) blind, or (sink) to destitution, we (can) always draw from the deep well of memory the thoughts that (delight) us in the past. How much I (regret) the time I (spend) in pursuing the shadows of this world, when I (may) store my mind with useful knowledge.
B. Speak about the role of books in your life.
Ex. 701. Report the following questions starting with the words He wanted to know.
1. Why is the earth moving? 2. Where are you staying? 3. What are they discussing?
4. When will the mail come? 5. What happened to them? 6. Did anyone call? 7. Could I talk to Brendon? 8. Have you always lived in Smolensk? 9. Who looks after your children? 10. How long have they been engaged? 11. Do I have to answer all the questions? 12. Shall I give you all the details? 13. Why hasn't anyone told me this? 14. Was Andrew driving too fast?
15. Whom do you like best? 16. Who likes you best? 17. Should we come as well?
18. Was the child sleeping when you came back?
Ex. 702.Correct the mistakes in the following sentences.
1. Cora often has been seen playing tennis. 2. What time do you meet Nadya this evening? 3. It was a lovely morning so Sarah suggested us to go for a swim. 4. I'm looking forward to see you. 5. My friend is going to look for a new job when he'll return to his country. 6.1 wish I wouldn't smoke so much. 7. We'd rather like to go to the theatre than to the cinema. 8. The war films have a negative effect to people. (2 mistakes) 9. Nowadays, a large amount of young people are studying languages. 10. She became very upset: even she asked me to leave the room. 11. The motorist asked the man why had he crossed the road at that point. 12. She left immediately her home. 13. Could you explain me how this machine works? 14. He was died in 1995. 15. Let's have a meeting sometimes next week. 16. When you arrive, I'll wait for you. 17. Did you make many friends since you came here? 18. When he was younger he was playing football.
Ex. 703.Translate into English.
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