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THE INFINITIVE-GERUND CORRELATION




There is a clear-out difference between these forms. Gerund has a more substantive nature than the infinitive. It is also more abstract. These forms don’t repeat but complement each other:

• “Seeing and talking to people made him tired.” - “It made him tired to see and talk to so many people.” (In the first example the person is talking about are general features of someone’s behavior. The second is one particular occasion.)

The infinitive has more dynamic, more actional character, compared to corresponding gerundial expressions:

• “For them to have arrived so early such a surprise! ” — “Their early arrival was so surprising. ”

Another category within substantival verbids is the category of modal representation. This category marks the infinitive in contrasts to the gerund and is revealed in the infinitive having a modal force:

• “This is a kind of piece desired by all. ” - "A land of piece that should be desired. ”

At present time there is a discussion if the present participle and the gerund constitute different verbids or if they present one and the same form. These forms are outwardly the same when viewed in isolation. And it is not by chance that in the American linguistic tradition they are recognized as one integral verb - ing. They are mostly observed in various positions of the sentence:

• I felt annoyed at his (gerund) him (participle) failing to see my point at.

• I saw him crossing the street/ his coming. I insist on him being invited.

 

Questions:

1. What are the non-finite forms? Describe it by your own words

2. What does the opposition between the finite and non-finite forms of the verb creates?

3. How many forms the English verbids include? Name them

4. What is the present participle? Give examples.

5. What is the difference between present and past participle?

6. Describe the infinitive-gerund correlation

Exercises

1). Identify the verbid in each phrase and label its function:

1. Our coach gave hiring an assistant serious consideration.

2. Federico gave up his favorite hobby, collecting baseball cards.

3. Her neighbor's horse won first place by jumping successfully over all the rails.

4. Catching lightning bugs can be fun in the summertime.

5. 5 His belief, getting to sleep early, helped him while he was in college.

6. The politician objected to releasing his medical files.

7. Our plan for winning next year is advertising on television.

8. Juggling chainsaws can be extremely dangerous.

9. The runner discussed winning the New York City Marathon.

10. The admiral’s objective was capturing the renegade raiding ship.

11. Changing the lighting is necessary during theatrical performances.

12. The owner did not permit smoking m the restaurant.

13. A psychologist's best trait is listening to others.

14. Her bad decision, skipping a day of school, cost her two days in suspension.

15. Mom gave making mashed potatoes a try.

16. Washington Roebling's greatest accomplishment was designing the Brooklyn Bridge.

17. Many reasons for leaving the game caused the crowd to disperse.

18. The landlord's responsibility, maintaining the apartment complex, became too much of a burden for him.

19. Everyone in the band liked eating out.

20. The umpire balked at taking a bribe.

2. Fill in the Infinitive or the -ing form:

1) Would you mind not (smoke)... here?

2) When I imagine (see) ... him again I feel so happy.

3) They have grown (hate) …. him.

4) The lungs function (supply)…. the body with oxygen.

5) This exercise is brought to you by www.nonstopenglish.com



6) She would really love (start) ... her own business.

7) She hurried (open) ... the door.

8) John mentioned (see)… you the other day. ,

9) If you want to catch the 9.30 plane, that will mean (leave) the house at 8.30 at the latest.

· lf you ever get (eat) ... there you must try their pizza.

· I used to hate jogging but I’m actually getting (like) ... it.

· 1 love (cook)... for my friends.

· 1 like (lie) ... in bed on Saturday mornings.

· 1 did not mean (overhear) ... their conversation.

· His grandfather lived (be) ... 93.

· He imagined himself (sit)... in his favourite armchair back home.

· He forbade me (tell) …. anyone about our plans.

· First they’ll learn (use) ... this machine.

· Don't forget (reserve) ... a seat for me.

· Do you have (finish) ... tins today?

3. Use to- or bare infinitive. Explain the choice:

1. Make him ... speak louder. 2. Help me ... carry this bag. 3. My son asked me ... let him ... go to the theatre: 4. It cannot... be done today. 5. She asked me…. read the letter carefully and ... write an answer. 6. The man told me not... walk on the grass. 7. Let me ... help yon with your work. 8. She ought... take care of her health. 9. We had better... stop to rest a little. 10. I don't know what… do. 11. He was seen ... leave the house. 11. We heard the siren ... sound and saw the ship... move. 12. I cannot... go there now, 1 have some work ... do. 13. You must make him ... practice an hour a day. 14. He is not sure that it can ... be done, but he is willing ... try. 15. 1 looked for the book everywhere but could not... find it. 16. He said that she might... come in the evening. 17. She was made….. repeat the song. 18. Would you rather ... learn shorthand than typewriting?

4. Translate into English using the construction for + noun / pronoun + infinitive:

1. Вам необходимо быть здесь завтра в 5 часов. 2. Ему легко это сделать. 3. Нам трудно сделать эту работу в такой короткий срок (in such a short time). 4.. Вашей сестре необходимо повидать его. 5. Текст был слишком трудный, чтобы он мог перевести его без словаря. 6. Сейчас слишком поздно, чтобы дети шли гулять.

5.Translate into English: 1. Говорят, что он в Москве. 2. Ожидают, что договор будет подписан на этой неделе. 3. Сообщают, что экспедиция выехала 15 мая. 4. Известно, что он придерживается другого мнения по этому вопросу. 5. Считают, что он один из лучших летчиков нашей страны. 6. Говорят, что этот дом был построен около двухсот лет тому назад. 6. Он, по-видимому, удовлетворен результатом своей работы. 7. Эта книга, по-видимому, очень интересная. 8. Он, кажется, знает этот предмет очень хорошо. 9. Он, по-видимому, очень много читал по этому вопросу. 10. Эта-задача оказалась очень трудной.

Vocabulary

Intermediary [ɪntəˈmiːdjərɪ] – промежуточный

Doer [ˈduːə] - исполнитель

Predicate [ˈpredɪkɪt] – утверждать, утверждение

Substantive [ˈsʌbstəntɪv] – основной, независимый

Interpretation [ɪntɜːprɪˈteɪʃn] – толкование, интерпритация

Render [ˈrendə] – оказывать, влиять

substances [ˈsʌbstənsɪz] - субстанция

property [ˈprɔpətɪ] – качество, характеристика

contiguity [kɔntɪˈgjuːɪtɪ] - смежность

controversial [kɔntrəˈvɜːʃəl] – спорный, сомнительный

categorical [kætɪˈgɔrɪkəl] - категорический

finitude [ˈfɪnɪtjuːd] – конечность

Not-finite- не личное

Combine [ˈkɔmbaɪn] - сочетать

Distinctions [dɪsˈtɪŋkʃn] - различия

Possess [pəˈzes] - обладать

Traits [treɪ] - черты

Dual [ˈdjuːəl] - двойной

Triple [trɪpl] - тройной

Display [dɪsˈpleɪ] - проявлять

Combinability [kʌmbənəˈbɪlɪtɪ] - совместимость

Auxiliary [ɔːgˈzɪljərɪ] - вспомогательные

Predicative [prɪˈdɪkətɪv] - вспомогательная часть сказуемого

Attribute [ˈætrɪbjuːt] - характерный признак

Convey [kənˈveɪ] - передавать

 

Bibliography

1. Головачева А.Н. Concise Theoretical Grammar (краткий курс лекций и практических заданий по теоретической грамматике английского языка) – Сочи 2006

2. Блох М. Я. Теоретическая грамматика английского языка: Учебник. Для студентов

филол. фак. ун-тов и фак. англ. яз. педвузов. — М.: Высш. школа, 1983.— с. 383

2. Asher, R. E. (ed.), The Encyclopedia of language and linguistics (pp. 2535–2540). Oxford: Pergamon Press.

3. Chandler, Daniel. (2001/2007). Semiotics: The Basics.

 





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