I. Переведите текст письменно, выпишите 20 незнакомых слов с переводом, выучите их
In their role as consumers, ordinary EU citizens are key players in the union’s new frontier-free single market. The union has in fact incorporated, as the basis of its consumer policy, the protection of the five fundamental rights which lie at the heart of national policies. These are:
1. The protection of consumer’s health and safety
Only products which will not endanger health and safety may be put on the market. This means setting safety requirements, providing full information about potential risks, and protecting consumers against physical injury
2. The protection of consumers’ economic interests
There is, for example a general ban on misleading advertising and unfair terms in contracts with consumers.
3. Consumer rights to information and education
Consumers need to be put in a position where they can make an informed choice among goods and services offered. This includes objective information on the features and price of the terms available. Consumers also require proper information about their efficient and safe use.
4. The right to redress
Consumers have the right to receive advice and help when seeking redress for faulty products or for injury or damage resulting from the use of goods and services. There need to be simple, affordable and rapid procedures for setting complaints and claims.
5. Consumer representation and participation
Representatives of consumers need to be present in decision-taking procedures on issues of concern to them at local, national or EU level. At Union level, this covers not only specific consumer issues but also other relevant policy areas like food laws, transport, competition policy, financial services, and environment.
When the Community (the former name of European Union) adopted its first consumer programme in 1975, it focused on the practical application of the five principles. The first result was a number of directives which were adopted over the next ten years covering among other things the safety of cosmetic products, the labeling of food stuff, misleading advertising, consumer rights in door-step selling, product liability and the provision of consumer credit.
In addition to its programme of legislation on consumer protection, the Union took steps to make sure the interests of consumers are taken into account at local and EU level. It has supported the development of national consumer organizations and of five major EU-wide organizations with consumer interests.
- The European Consumers’ organization (BEUC),
- The Confederation of Family Organizations in the European Union (Coface),
- The European Community of Consumer Cooperatives (Eurocoop),
- The European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC),
- The European Interregional Institute for Consumer Affairs (EIICA).
Internally, the European Commission created an independent Consumer Policy Service in 1989 in order to give more authority and a higher profile to the implementation of consumer policy.
According to the data of 1991, nearly 64% of Community GDP (внутренний национальный продукт) is devoted to private consumption, the highest proportion being 70.3% in Greece and the lowest 52.5% in Denmark (63.4% in the UK). The remainder of the GDP is devoted mainly to financing investments and the collective consumption of general government.
On average, Europeans devote 20% of their «consumption» budget to food (ranging from 37.8 in Greece to 16.6% in Germany, 21.5% in the UK) whereas 17.2% covers housing expenditure (27.8% in Denmark as against 10.3% in Portugal, 18.5 in the UK). There are also marked disparities in spending on leisure and education (4.3% in Luxembourg compared with 10.5% in Ireland, with a UK average of 9.7%).
There is plenty to be done, even after the legislative programme set out in the Maastricht Treaty on European Union is completed. This single market, like any other, needs to balance the interests of buyers and sellers if it is to operate efficiently. This means not only fixing additional rules for consumer protection but also ensuring that existing ones are applied correctly (which is not always the case).
II. Ответьте на вопросы:
1. State five main principles of EU policy of consumer protection.
2. What organizations are involved in this process?
3. When was the first consumer programme adopted?
4. What is the «consumption» structure in Great Britain?
5. What kind of legislative programme is mentioned in the text?
III. Переведите предложения на русский язык, определите тип придаточного предложения:
Образец:She asked how much he had got at his previous job. (Придаточное предложение – дополнение). Она спросила, сколько он получал на прежнем месте работы.
1. We couldn’t cancel the order because it had been already sent.
2. We must leave home two hours before the plane takes off so that we can get there without hurrying.
3. What is the best solution of this problem will be discussed during the meeting.
4. He told her to prepare the papers for the annual meeting of shareholders.
5. It’s no use inviting him to the concert, he’ll refuse to join us, I’m sure. It looks as if he didn’t care for this kind of music.
6. Mr. Wilson stared at the newcomer as though he were surprised to see him at the hotel.
7. The man who is standing next to CEO is our new economist.
8. Do you know if he is preparing for giving presentation?
9. He always visited historical museums wherever he went.
IV. Переведите предложения с сослагательным наклонением на русский язык, подчеркните формы сослагательного наклонения:
Образец: If they had a good sale, I would stop by my way home. -Если бы продажи шли хорошо, я бы остановился (заехал) по дороге домой.
1. If I had lost that much public money, I would have been fired by them.
2. You can be paid in advance if you want.
3. If he didn’t change the money at the bank he would have a lot of problems.
4. We wish that you would change your mind about leaving tomorrow.
5. Jerry wishes that she were more interested in his work.
6. If he spent a few days on the beach he would feel much better.
7. If he were a sales representative he would work twelve hours a day.
8. If the advertisement were made in time they could increase sales.
9. If the seller were unable to obtain the export licence and the Buyer were unable to obtain the import licence the Seller’s/ Buyer’s country would have the right to cancel the Contract wholly or partially.
V. Переведите предложения на английский язык, используя сослагательное наклонение, подчеркните форму сослагательного наклонения:
Образец: Если бы было больше времени, я бы проверил отчет еще раз. – If I had had more time I would have checked my report again.
1. Если бы вы изменили свое решение и не уезжали завтра, мы бы смогли обсудить еще много важных вопросов.
2. Жаль, что они не успели обсудить свои деловые вопросы с клиентами.
3. Если бы эта компания продавала товары по всему миру, они бы пользовались большой популярностью.
4. Если бы он остался на работе до 9 вечера, он бы смог дописать годовой отчет.
5. Мы наверняка добрались бы до места назначения быстрее, если бы точно знали дорогу.
6. Мы бы могли обсудить условия контракта подробнее, если бы у нас было больше времени.
7. Если бы она пила меньше кофе, она бы не была такой нервной.
8. Жаль, что вы не были в Лондоне: это один из крупнейших центров бизнеса и торговли.
VI. Переведите предложения с независимым и зависимым причастными оборотами на русский язык, подчеркните независимый и зависимый причастные обороты:
Образец: My task having been finished, I went home (независимый причастный оборот). – После того, как задание было выполнено, я пошел домой.
Having filled an application form, he was interviewed by Jane Smith for a position of a manager (зависимый причастный оборот). – Заполнив бланк заявления, он проходил собеседование на должность менеджера, проводимое Джейн Смит.
1. Peter being away, Alexander had to do this work.
2. All this having been settled, he went home.
3. The game having ended, the crowd went home.
4. Having discussed the matter with the clients he went home.
5. Nobody being there, I went away.
6. The conference being very interesting, the participants could discuss the most important matters.
7. The concert being over, everyone went away.
8. The goods being faulty, they told the seller at once.
VII. Найдите ошибку в каждом из следующих предложений и исправьте ее:
1) If water freezes, it has become a solid.
2) If they have a good sale, I would have stopped by on my way home.
3) If Mr. Hunt is single, I could introduce him to my sister.
4) If I had more time, I would checked my paper again.
5) We wish that you will change your mind about leaving tomorrow.
6) We will wait if you wanted to leave.
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