Unit 1. Legislation in Russia
1. Ответьте на вопросы:
1.Why do you think we have laws in our city, state, and country?
What would our country be like if there were no laws or rules to follow?
3.What do you know about legislation? What is the aim of this procedure?
What bodies in your country are responsible for making laws?
2. Прочитайте и переведите текст со словарем:
TEXT 1. LEGISLATION IN RUSSIA
The doctrine of the separation of powers legislation is regarded as one of the three main functions of government. Those who have the formal power to create legislation are known as legislators. Legislation can have many purposes: to regulate, to authorize, to proscribe, to provide (funds), to sanction, to grant, to declare or to restrict. Federal Assembly of Russia is the law-making body of the Russian Federation, according to the Constitution of Russian Federation, 1993. It consists of the State Duma, which is the lower house, and the Federation Council, which is the upper house. Both houses are located in Moscow. State Duma has special powers enumerated by the Constitution of Russia. They are:
consent to the appointment of the Prime Minister of Russia;
earing annual reports from the Government of the Russian Federation on the results of its work, including on issues raised by the State Duma;
deciding the issue of confidence in the Government of the Russian Federation;
appointment and dismissal of the Chairman of the Central Bank of Russia;
appointment and dismissal of the Chairman and half of the auditors of the Accounts Chamber;
appointment and dismissal of the Commissioner for Human Rights, who shall act according to federal constitutional law;
announcement of amnesty;
bringing charges against the President of the Russian Federation for his impeachment (requires a two thirds majority);
The State Duma adopts decrees on issues referred to its authority by the Constitution of the Russian Federation. Decrees of the State Duma are adopted by a majority of the total number of deputies of the State Duma.
The Council is charged in cooperating with the State Duma in completing and voting on draft laws. Special powers of the Federation Council are:
Approval of changes in borders between subjects of the Russian Federation;
Approval of a decree of the President of the Russian Federation on the introduction of martial law;
Approval of a decree of the President of the Russian Federation on the introduction of a state of emergency;
Deciding on the possibility of using the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation outside the territory of the Russian Federation;
Declaring of elections of the President of the Russian Federation;
Impeachment of the President of the Russian Federation;
approving the President's nomination of judges of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation, of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation, of the Higher Arbitration Court of the Russian Federation;
approving the President's nomination of the Attorney General of the Russian Federation;
Appointment of Deputy Chairman and half of the auditors of the Accounting Chamber.
To pass the law more than half of senators of the Federation Council must vote for it. When considering federal constitutional laws, three-fourths of the Councils votes are required for passage.bills must first be considered by the State Duma. Upon adoption by a majority of the full State Duma membership, a draft law is considered by the Federation Council, which has fourteen days to place the bill on its calendar. The Federation Council cannot make amendments in bills passed by the Duma and can either approve or reject them. If the Federation Council rejects a bill passed by the State Duma, the two chambers may form a conciliation commission to work out a compromise version of the legislation. If two chambers cannot reach a compromise, or the Duma insists on passing the bill as is, the veto of the Federation Council can be overridden, if two thirds of the Duma's constitutional composition vote in favor of the bill. The State Duma and the Federation Council usually meet separately. Joint sessions are organized when the President of Russia delivers his annual address to the Federal Assembly and in some other very rare occasions.
3. Переведите следующие слова и словосочетания из текста
1.to create legislation
2.a law-making body
to have special powers
a dismissal of the Chairman
to bring a charge against the President
to adopt decrees on issues
to vote on draft laws
introduction of the law
approval of changes
to reject a bill
to make amendments in bills
to override the veto
4. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты русским словам и словосочетаниям
11.прийти к компромиссу
13.назначение (на должность)
5. Ответьте на вопросы по тексту
1.What is the main legislative body in Russia? What does it consist of?
2.What powers of the State Duma are enumerated in the Constitution?
3.What are the special powers of the Federal Council?
4.How do the State Duma and the Federal Council meet?
5.Which chamber of the Federal Assembly is more powerful? Why?
6. Заполните пропуски словами и словосочетаниями в рамке.
1.bring charges against 2. elects 3. draft laws 4. the lower house5. vetoed 6. issues 7. approve or reject 8. to override a presidential veto 9. the upper house 10. appoint or dismiss 11. appointment
1.The 628-member law-making body, termed the Federal Assembly, consists of two chambers, the 450-member State Duma (_____) and the 178-member Federation Council (____).
2.The State Duma confirms the _______ of the prime minister, although it does not have the power to confirm Government ministers.
3.The two chambers of the legislature also have the power ______ of legislation.
4.Upon the advice of the prime minister, the president can _______ Government members, including the deputy prime ministers.
5.Under the 1993 constitution, if the president commits "grave crimes" or treason, the State Duma may _______ him with the parliament's upper house, the Federation Council.
6.Several bills that the President had ________ were taken up again by the new legislature.
7.The Federation Council deals primarily with such _______ as internal borders and decrees of the president establishing martial law or states of emergency etc.
8.All ________, even those proposed by the Federation Council, must first be considered by the State Duma.
9.According to the 1993 constitution, the State Duma must decide within one week to __________ a candidate once the president has placed that person's name in nomination.
10.Each legislative chamber ______ a chairman to control the internal procedures of the chamber.
7.Замените русские слова и выражения в скобках соответствующими английскими эквивалентами
1.The State Duma (принимает постановления) on (вопросам) referred to its authority by the Constitution of the Russian Federation. Decrees of the State Duma are adopted by a majority of the total number of deputies of the State Duma, unless another procedure is envisaged by the Constitution. All (законопроекты) are first (одобряются) by the State Duma and are further debated and approved (or (отклоняются)) by the Federation Council.
2.The (Государственная Дума) in the Russian Federation is the lower house of the (Федерального Собрания) of Russia (legislature), the upper house being the (Совет Федераций) of Russia.
3.The president (назначает) the prime minister, and the Duma (голосует) whether to confirm the appointment. The president has wide legislative powers, including the (право вето) and decree. Decrees carry the force of law, but may not violate existing law. The Federal Assembly may (преодолеть президентское вето) by a two-thirds vote of each chamber.
4.(Законодательная деятельность) originates in the Duma and, if passed, is sent to the Federation Council. If the Federation Council approves the legislation or fails to examine it within fourteen days, the legislation is sent to the president to be signed.
5.When considering federal constitutional laws, three-fourths of the Council have to (проголосовать). If the Council vetoes a law passed by the State Duma, the two chambers are mandated to form a (согласительную комиссию) in order to (прийти к компромиссу) and make up a document, which would again go under vote by both houses.
6.The two houses of the Federal Assembly (заседают раздельно), with the State Duma residing in another part of Moscow. Sessions of the Federation Council are held in Moscow from January 25 to July 15 and from September 16 to December 31.
7.The State Duma has special powers enumerated by the Constitution of Russia. Among them there is the power to (выносить обвинение) against the President of the Russian Federation for his impeachment.
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