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Are the following statements true or false? Find some mistakes. Check yourself





1. The UK is washed by the North and Irish seas and by the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans.

2. Administratively the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is divided into 55 counties.

3. A county is a region of Britain and Ireland, which has its own local government.

4. North and West of the UK are highlands, South and East – lowlands.

5. The highest mountain of Great Britain Ben Nevis is in Wales.

6. The Clyde, the Avon, the Trent and the Cam are among the UK longest rivers.

7. Bristol is a city in southwestern England, located on the Avon River about 6 miles from the Bristol Channel.

8. The Coat of Arms of the UK shows a shield, a crown, a lion, a unicorn and the motto “Dieu et mon driot”.

9. English people call the national flag the Union Jack, the Saint George’s Cross, the Saint Andrew’s cross.

10. There are many large cities in Great Britain: Chicago, San-Francisco, and Detroit.

11. The national emblem of England is a rose; in Wales it is a daffodil and leek; in Scotland – a thistle, in Northern Ireland – a shamrock.

12. The Arctic Ocean separates Great Britain from the continent.

Exercise3.

Give a one-minute talk on the situations.

a) Channel Tunnel - a railway tunnel under the English Channel, linking the coasts of England and France, opened in 1994 and 49 km (31 miles) long;

b) Britain is a member of NATO - North Atlantic Treaty Organization (an international organization which consists of the USA, Canada, and other European countries who have agreed to support one another if they are attacked.);

c) Loch Ness - a deep lake in northwestern Scotland, in the Great Glen. It is 24 miles (38 km) long, with a maximum depth of 755 feet (230 m). The lake has long been rumored to be the home of the Loch Ness monster.

d) A bagpipe - a musical instrument associated especially with Scotland, but also used in folk music in Ireland.

Exercise4.

Draw a simple map of Great Britain. Write the names of some cities, rivers, lakes, mountains etc. Work with your partner. Ask each other questions about geographical features of the UK.

Test yourself.

1. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland comprises _______ parts. A. 3 B. 4 C. 5

2. The name for the island that comprises England, Scotland, and Wales is _______.

A. The United KingdomB. Great Britain C. The British Isles

 

3. The Coat of Arms of the UK shows _______.

A. a shield, a crown, a lion, a unicorn and the motto “Dieu et mon driot”;

B. a bald eagle with a ribbon in its mouth bearing the motto “E pluribus Unum”, 13 arrows and an olive branch in its talons;

C. a shield, a kangaroo, an emu, a branch of acacia

4. The British national flag (The Union Jack) hasn’t _______.

A. St Catherines’ Cross B. St George’s Cross

C. St Andrew’s Cross D. St Patrick’s Cross

5. The British national anthem is _______.

A. “God Save the Queen”

B. “In God we trust”

C. “God forbid”

6. The British unit of money is _______.

A. Irish pound

B. pound sterling

C. Egyptian pound

7. A city in eastern England where one of the oldest Universities is located _______.

A. Bedford B. Harvard C. Cambridge

8. One of the main industrial cities in west central England is _______.

A. Belfast

B. Birmingham

C. Cardiff

9. An industrial city and metropolitan district in England, founded in Roman times, developed in the 18th and 19th centuries as a centre of the English cotton industry is _______.

A. Manchester B. the Wheat Belt C. the Rust Belt



 

 

Unit 5

You will read & translate a text about London. Before you read, discuss in pairs the following.

1. Have you ever been to London? 2. How do foreigners characterize the British? 3. What happened in London in1666? 4. How do the British call the London Underground? 5. What traditional song is performed at a British birthday party? Do you know it? 6. What is Conrad (Nicholson) Hilton famous for? Do you know anything about the Hilton Hotels Corporation?

London

The capital of the United Kingdom, in southeastern England on the Thames River about forty miles from its mouth is London. London is a leading global city, with its strengths in the arts, commerce, education, entertainment, fashion, finance, healthcare, media, professional services, research and development, tourism and transport all contributing to its prominence. It is the largest city in Britain and one of the largest cities in the world. It is known as one of the largest sea ports in the world. London has the largest city GDP in Europe, and is home to the headquarters of more than 100 of Europe's 500 largest companies.

The Thames River has had a major influence on the development of the city. London began on the Thames' north bank and for a long time the main focus of the city remained on the north side of the Thames. For many centuries London Bridge was the only bridge in or close to the city.

London’s history goes back to its founding by the Romans, who called it Londinium. It was settled as a river port and trading centre shortly after the Roman invasion of AD 43 and has been a flourishing centre since the Middle Ages. It is divided administratively into the City of London, which is the country's financial centre, and 32 boroughs. The London boroughs are administered by London Borough Councils which are elected every four years. The boroughs are the principal local authorities in London and are responsible for running most local services in their areas, such as schools, social services, waste collection, and roads.

As far as I know in London one can see architecture of different centuries and styles. It is closely connected with the history of London. The Romans, the Saxons (West Germanic tribe), the Danes, the Normans settled in Britain. London survived the Great Plague - a serious outbreak of bubonic plague in England in 1665-1666, in which about one fifth of the population of London died. It was the last major outbreak in Britain.

The Great Fire of London is to be mentioned. During the Fire all wooden houses were completely ruined and a New London with bigger houses and wider streets was built.

Traditionally London is divided into several parts: the City, Westminster, the West End and the East End. I’d like to start with the City.

The City of London is a small area within Greater London. It is the historic core of London around which the modern conurbation grew and has held city status since time immemorial. The City’s boundaries have remained almost unchanged since the Middle Ages, and it is now only a tiny part of the metropolis of London, though remains a notable part of Central London. It is often referred to as the City (often written on maps as "City") or the Square Mile, as it is just over one square mile (1.12 sq mi/2.90 km²) in area. These terms are also often used as metonyms for the United Kingdom's financial services industry, which has historically been based here. The City has a resident population of around 10,000, but around 330,000 people work there, mainly in the financial services sector. There are many banks, offices, and the Stock Exchange.

Greater London covers an area of 1,579 square kilometers (610 sq mi), an area which had a population of 7,172,036. The West End is the richest part of the city with its beautiful avenues, parks and gardens, grand hotels, theatres and fashionable shops. It is a symbol of wealth and luxury. Here one can see the Houses of Parliament, most governmental offices, such as Foreign Office, Home Office, etc. The East End is a vast area running eastward from the city. It is poor and crowded. It has all the main docks and a lot of factories. In the East End one can see numerous dirty houses and slums.

If you want to get some glimpses of London, you’d better start sightseeing with the Tower of London, which comes first among the historic buildings of the city. It was built as the fortress after the Norman invasion of England in 1066. It has been used as the Royal Palace, as an observatory, and a prison. For many visitors the principal attraction is the Crown Jewels, the finest precious stones of the nation.

Another historic building is St. Paul’s Cathedral, the greatest of English churches. It was built by a famous English architect Sir Christopher Wren. St. Paul’s Cathedral, with its famous Whispering Gallery, is considered to be a masterpiece of Renaissance architecture.

Westminster Abbey was founded by Edward the Confessor in 1050. The best part of the Abbey is a wonderful chapel, dating back to the 16th century. It is famous for its magnificent architecture. There are many monuments there. Many English kings and queens are buried there. One of the greatest treasures of the Abbey is oaken Coronation Chair made in 1300. On the south side of Westminster Abbey is Poet’s Corner, where the greatest English writers are buried. Here also are memorials to Shakespeare, Burns, Byron, Scott and so on. Across the road from Westminster Abbey is Westminster Palace, which is spread magnificently on the north bank of the Thames. It is a remarkable example of Gothic architecture.

Topical vocabulary

the Thames River Темза (река в Великобритании)
the mouth устье
strength достоинство, сильная сторона
prominence выдающееся положение; известность
headquarters штаб-квартира, головной офис
a major influence значительное влияние
to remain оставаться
AD, Anno Domini н.э., нашей эры
the Middle Ages Средние века
The City деловой квартал в центре Лондона: финансовые и коммерческие круги Лондона.
a borough один из 32-х административных районов Лондона
waste collection вывоз отходов, уборка мусора
Saxons Cаксы (древнегерманское племя; приняло участие в завоевании Британии
the Great Plague Великая чума (эпидемическая вспышка бубонной чумы в Лондоне в 1665)
Greater London Большой Лондон - административно-территориальная единица; состоит из Лондона и его пригородов, ранее бывших частью прилегающих графств: Мидлсекс, Эссекс, Кент, Саррей, Хартфордшир)
time immemorial незапамятное время
a metonym метоним (слово, заменяющее другое слово на основе связи их значений.
resident population постоянное население
the Stock Exchange Лондонская фондовая биржа (основана в 1773)
Houses of Parliament здание парламента
Foreign Office Министерство иностранных дел
Home Office Министерство внутренних дел
slums трущобы
to get some glimpses of London бросить беглый взгляд на Лондон
an observatory обсерватория
eastward на восток, в восточном направлении
the Crown jewels драгоценности из королевской казны
Whispering Gallery «Галерея шёпота» (у основания внутреннего купола собора Павла; знаменита своим акустическим эффектом.
Westminster Abbey Вестминстерское аббатство (место коронации английских монархов) б) британский парламент (здание парламента располагается в районе Вестминстер).
The Coronation Chair Коронационное кресло (в Вестминстерском аббатстве) используется во время коронации.
a memorial памятник, монумент, мемориал
Westminster Palace Вестминстерский дворец (королевский); с середины 14 в нём проходят заседания парламента
Poet’s Corner часть Вестминстерского аббатства, где похоронены выдающиеся поэты...
World Heritage Sites объекты Всемирного наследия

Exercise1.





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