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Make up situations using the English equivalents of the words given above. 31. Find in the text the right words to complete the sentences:

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31. Find in the text the right words to complete the sentences:


1. Russia has a ___ range of mining and extractive industries

2. Russia ended 2004 with its sixth straight year of ___, averaging 6.5 per cent annually since the financial ___ of 1998.

3. Real fixed capital ___ have averaged gains greater than 10 per cent over the last five years, and real personal ___ have realized average increases over 12 per cent.

4. Russia has also ___ its international financial ___ since the 1998 financial crisis.

5. These ___, along with a renewed government effort to ___ structural reforms, have raised business and investor ___ in Russia's economic prospects.

6. Economic ___ slowed down in the second half of 2004 and the Russian government forecasts ___ of only 4.5 per cent to 6.2 per cent for 2005.

7. Russia's manufacturing ___ is dilapidated and must be replaced or modernized if the country is to ___ broad-based economic growth.


32. Explain the meaning of the following words and word combination in English:


To have a complete range of mining and extractive industries; high-performance industry; communications equipment; to advance structural reforms; economic rebound; to be replaced; economic prospects; foreign investors; lack of trust

33. Match each word in A with the Russian equivalent in B:


1. mining a. оборудование
2. shipbuilding b. самолет
3. foodstuffs c. ремесла
4. handicrafts d. товары длительного пользования
5. rolling mills e. прокатный стан
6. aircraft f. кораблестроение
7. durables g. продукты питания
8. equipment h. горное дело


34. Read the text below to find answers to the given questions:


Text 3 D



1. What is the administrative, economic, political and educational centre of Russia?

2. What is the population of Moscow?

3. What architectural features does Moscow combine?

4. Who was the founder of Moscow?

5. By what time had Moscow grown into a wealthy city?

6. Why is Moscow the city of Russian contrasts?

7. What is the heart of Moscow?

8. What are Moscow’s places of interest?


Moscow is the capital of Russia, its administrative, economic, political and educational centre. It is located on the river Moskva in the western region of Russia. It is one of Russia's major cities with the population of over 9 million people. Its total area is about 900 thousand square kilometers. Moscow is a unique city, its architecture combines the features of both Oriental and Western cultures. Today we are the witnesses of a new stage in Moscow’s life. Here more than anywhere else one can feel the atmosphere of all those changes which draw the attention of the whole world.

The city was founded by Prince Yuri Dolgorukiy and was first mentioned in the chronicles in 1147. At that time it was a small frontier settlement. By the 15th century Moscow had grown into a wealthy city. In the 16th century, under Ivan the Terrible, Moscow became the capital of the state of Muscovy. In the 18th century Peter the Great transferred the capital to St. Petersburg, but Moscow remained the heart of Russia. That is why it became the main target of Napoleon's attack in 1812. During the war of 1812 three quarters of the city were destroyed by fire, but by the middle of the 19th century Moscow was completely rebuilt. The present-day Moscow is the seat of the government of the Russian Federation. President of Russia lives and works here; government offices are located here, too. Moscow is a major industrial city. Its leading industries are engineering, chemical and light industries.

Russian contrasts are more present in Moscow than in any other city in Russia. Ancient monasteries and ultra-modern monoliths stand side by side and the new Russian millionaires and the poor pensioners walk side by side in the same streets. Moscow’s streets are lined with small monolithic department stores and beautiful churches that are being restored after the vandalism of the Soviet era and the hardline atheism. Every visitor to Moscow is irresistibly drawn to the Red Square, the historical and spiritual heart of the city, so loaded with associations and drama that it seems to embody all of Russia's triumphs and tragedies.

The Kremlin broads and glitters in the heart of Moscow. It thrills and tantalizes whenever you see its towers against the skyline or its cathedrals and palaces arrayed above the Moskva River. The Kremlin is surrounded by a beautiful residential district that is known as the White Town. The White Town was the very heart of the city during the sixteenth century, and even today it has a strongly medieval feel.

Moscow is also well known as the site of the Saint Basil’s Cathedral, with its elegant onion domes. The Patriarch of Moscow, whose residence is the Danilov Monastery, serves as the head of the Russian Orthodox Church. Moscow is also known for many other historical buildings, museums and art galleries, as well as for the famous Bolshoi, Maly and Art theatres. There are more than 80 museums in Moscow, among them the unique Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts and the State Tretyakov Gallery, the Andrey Rublyov — Museum of Early Russian Art and many others.

Moscow is a city of science and learning. There are over 80 higher educational institutions in the city, including a number of universities.



35. Find in the text the words or phrases which mean the same as:


§ образовательный центр § ультрасовременные массивы (зданий)
§ бескомпромиссный § воплощать
§ жилой район § средневековый
§ древние монастыри § горизонт


36. Match each word in A with the Russian equivalent in B:


1. unique city a. приграничное поселение
2. chronicles b. рядом
3. wealthy city c. блистать
4. to thrill d. манить, соблазнять
5. to tantalize e. уникальный город
6. to glitter f. вызывать трепет
7. side by side g. богатый город
8. frontier settlement h. хроники
9. art galleries i. исторические здания
10. historical buildings j. художественные галереи


37. Fill in the gaps with the words from the box:


picturesque cuisine destination snow museums diverse travelling river snowboarding


Plan Your Russian Travel Experience Now


If you have considered 1 ___ to another country, you might as well consider Russia as the ideal destination. Russia is divided into some very exciting cities and many small 2 ___ countryside towns, each with its own special attractions. You can plan a day of fun and adventure by exploring Russia's landscape through some of the most beautiful waterways to be found in this country on a 3 ___ rafting tour. If you are amongst the ones that prefer the wildlife tours, then why not go on an exciting jeep tour to the Republic of Sakha in Yakutia, which has the largest hunting grounds in Russia. This region has a high population of brown bears so you can almost be sure of a 100% trophy warranty in this region. Russia offers a good measure of this too. Moscow and St. Petersburg have an abundance of 4 ___, art galleries and guided tours through the older parts of the cities that feature sightseeing of monuments and Old Russian architecture.

Russia is also home to some of the oldest lakes in the world, such as Lake Baikal — an estimated 25-30 million years old. When visited in winter, Russia is covered in 5 ___ and the lakes are covered with a dense layer of ice, these conditions are very favorable for those who fascinate the winter adventures, such as skiing, 6 ___, ice-diving and ice-skating.

Russia is a large and extremely culturally 7 ___ country, with dozens of ethnic groups, each with their own forms of folk music, languages and religions. Russia is a country that has something to cater for everyone's taste, and when the sun sets, you can spoil yourself to some lip-smacking Russian 8 ___ in one of the many delightful restaurants. Make Russia your next holiday 9 ___ – you won’t regret it!


Check your answers on p.279.


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