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Work in pairs. Fill in the gaps in the following paragraph with appropriate prepositions. Act out the conversation

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«Would you please tell me how to get ___ the baseball park? »

«Certainly. You go down Arch Street two blocks and turn left ___ King Street. Stay ___ King Street ___ about two miles. You will go ___ a bridge and ___ a tunnel. You will come to Ocean Avenue, and ___ the middle of the block you will see the main entrance ___ the ball park. I would suggest that you drive your car ___ the block and park ___ the parking lot behind the field».

«Thank you».


25. Fill in the gaps with the prepositions from the box:



of (9) to (4) in (5) with by (2) on for (2)

Common names and abbreviations ___ the United States of America include the United States, the U.S., the U.S.A., the States (informal), and America (colloquially). The earliest known use ___ the name America is attributed ___ the German cartographer Martin Waldseemuller who ___ 1507, created a globe and a large map showing North and South America. According ___ the Library ___ Congress «Waldseemüller christened the new lands ‘America’ ___ recognition ___ Amerigo Vespucci’s understanding that a new continent had been uncovered as a result ___ the voyages ___ Columbus and other explorers ___ the late fifteenth century.» Citizens and residents often use the States to contrast it ___ other countries. The term is especially common among expatriates. U.S. of A is often used ___ other English-speaking countries.

The full name ___ the country was first used officially ___ the Declaration ___ Independence, which was the «unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America» adopted ___ the «Representatives ___ the united States of America» ___ July 4, 1776. On November 15, 1777, the Second Continental Congress adopted the Articles of Confederation, the first of which stated «The Style of this Confederacy shall be ‘The United States of America’». The name was originally proposed ___ Thomas Paine.

The most common adjectival and demonymic form ___ the United States is American. This term is used to designate U.S. citizens who are abroad, and ___ cultural characteristics («American language», «American sports») and is rarely (at least not in English) used to refer ___ people not connected ___ the U.S.


Consult the TEXTS FOR SUPPLEMENTARY READING and complete the information about large cities of the USA (Texts 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13). Be ready to discuss the information you have read.


27. Read the text below to find answers to the given questions:


Text 4 C

British Parliament


1. What does the term «constitutional monarchy» mean?

Great Britain is a constitutional monarchy. This means that it has a monarch as its Head of the State. The monarch reigns with the support of Parliament. The powers of the monarch are not defined precisely. Everything today is done in the Queen’s name. It is her government, her armed forces, her law courts and so on. She appoints all the Ministers, including the Prime Minister. Everything is done however on the advice of the elected Government, and the monarch takes no part in the decision-making process.

2. What is the name of the association of former members of the British Empire?

Once the British Empire included a large number of countries all over the world ruled by Britain. The process of decolonization began in 1947 with the independence of India, Pakistan and Ceylon. Now there is no Empire and only few small islands belong to Britain. In 1997 the last colony, Hong Kong, was given to China. But the British ruling classes tried not to lose influence over the former colonies of the British Empire. An association of former members of the British Empire and Britain was founded in 1949. It is called the Commonwealth. The Queen of Great Britain is also Head of the Commonwealth.

3. What is the British constitution?

The British constitution is to a large extent a product of many historical events. Unlike the constitutions of most other countries, it is not set out in any single document. Instead it is made up of statute law, common law and conventions. The constitution can be changed by Act of Parliament, or by general agreement to alter a convention.

4. What elements make up British Parliament?

The three elements, which make up Parliament – the Queen, the House of Lords and the elected House of Commons, are constituted on different principles. They meet together only on occasions of symbolic significance such as the State Opening of Parliament, when the Commons are invited by the Queen to the House of Lords or coronation of a new monarch. Parliament consists of two chambers known as the House of Lords and the House of Commons. The division of Parliament into two Houses goes back over some 700 years when feudal assembly ruled the country. In modern times, real political power rests in the elected House although members of the House of Lords still occupy important cabinet posts. Parliament and the monarch have different roles in the government of the country. In reality, the House of Commons is the only one of the three which is true power. It is here that new bills are introduced and debated. If the majority of the members aren’t in favour of a bill it goes to the House of Lords to be debated and finally to the monarch to be signed. Only than it becomes law. Although a bill must be supported by all three bodies, the House of Lords only has limited powers, and the monarch hasn’t refused to sign one.

5. What are the functions of Parliament?

The main functions of Parliament are: to pass laws; to provide, by voting, taxation, the means of carrying on the work of government; to scrutinize government policy and administration; to debate the major issues of the day. In carrying out these functions Parliament helps to bring the relevant facts and issues before the electorate. By custom, Parliament is also informed before all-important international treaties and agreements are ratified. A Parliament has a maximum duration of five years, but in practice general elections are usually held before the end of this term. Parliament is dissolved and rights for a general election are ordered by the Queen on the advice of the Prime Minister. The life of a Parliament is divided into sessions. Each usually lasts for one year — normally beginning and ending in October or November. At the start of each session the Queen's speech to Parliament outlines the Government’s policies and proposed legislative programme.

6. What is the British political party system?

The present political system depends upon the existence of organized political parties, each of which presents its policies to the electorate for approval. The parties are not registered or formally recognized in law, but in practice most candidates in elections, and almost all winning candidates, belong to one of the main parties. For the last 150 years there were only two parties: the Conservative Party and the Labour Party. The effectiveness of the party system in Parliament rests largely on the relationship between the Government and the Opposition parties. Depending on the relative strengths of the parties in the House of Commons, the Opposition may seek to overthrow the Government by defeating it in a vote on a «matter of confidence».

7. What is the cabinet of ministers?

It is responsible for the administration of national affairs. The Prime Minister is appointed by the Queen, and all other ministers are appointed by the Queen on the recommendation of the Prime Minister. Most ministers are members of the Commons, although the Government is also fully represented by ministers in the Lords. The composition of governments can vary both in the number of ministers and in the titles of some offices. New ministerial offices may be created, others may be abolished and functions may be transferred from one minister to another. The Cabinet is composed of about 20 ministers chosen by the Prime Minister. The functions of the Cabinet are initiating and deciding on policy, the supreme control of government and the co-ordination of government departments. The Prime Minister is, by tradition, First Lord of the Treasury and Minister for the Civil Service. The Prime Minister’s unique position of authority derives from majority support in the House of Commons and from the power to appoint and dismiss ministers. By modern convention, the Prime Minister always sits in the House of Commons. The Prime Minister presides over the Cabinet, is responsible for the allocation of functions among ministers and informs the Queen at regular meetings of the general business of the Government. The Prime Minister’s Office is situated at 11 Downing Street.

So Great Britain is the constitutional monarchy. Monarch is the Head of the State. But Queen or King rules with the support of the parliament. And practically monarch has no real political power. The main political decisions are made by the Parliament and the Cabinet.



28. Find in the text the words or phrases which mean the same as:


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