Use the diagram to discuss with your partners the problems of environmental pollution
45. Read the following text carefully in order to discover the main line of thought and make a plan for writing a summary:
The earth’s oxygen content is maintained by plants. Plants use a process called photosynthesis to convert carbon dioxide and water molecules into carbohydrate and oxygen molecules. Carbohydrates are a broad class of molecules ranging from the cellulose that gives the plant its rigidity to the sugars that provide energy for the plant and for the animals that eat it. Since the carbohydrate and oxygen molecules contain more chemical potential energy than the carbon dioxide and water molecules from which they’re produced, the plant needs an input of energy to carry out the conversion. In the process of photosynthesis, this energy is provided by sunlight.
Plants absorb light in brightly coloured photosynthetic pigments, such as the green chemical chlorophyll, and these chemicals use the light’s energy to perform chemical reactions. In effect, photosynthesis is the opposite of combustion. While it’s easy to burn wood in oxygen to form water and carbon dioxide, it’s much harder to use light energy to turn carbon dioxide and water into wood and oxygen.
Nonetheless, plants have developed very capable mechanisms for performing this reverse-combustion process. Without plants, the earth’s atmosphere would quickly become depleted of oxygen.
Much of the effort to reduce deforestation throughout the world is motivated by a desire to keep the atmosphere’s oxygen level high and its carbon dioxide level low. Plants are able to use light energy to induce chemical reactions in part because light is emitted and absorbed in discrete packets of energy.
Each time it absorbs a packet of light energy, a photon, the photosynthetic chemical takes a step toward converting carbon dioxide and water into carbohydrate and oxygen. The energy in a photon is related to the wavelength of the light — long wavelength infrared light is absorbed or emitted as small packets of energy while short wavelength ultraviolet light is absorbed or emitted as large packets of energy. Visible light falls somewhere in between and has the right range of photon energies to support photosynthesis.
READING FOR FUN
Fill in the gaps with the missing words from the box. Be ready to discuss this joke with your partner.
A Border Station
A train stopped ___ a French border station. The passengers opened their trunks and waited ___ the inspection ___ their things. One ___ the passengers ___ a first class carriage took a lot ___ boxes ___ cigarettes ___ his trunk and wanted to put them ___ his pockets. When his pockets were already full ___ cigarettes and he couldn’t put any more ___ them he said ___ another man who was ___ window ‘Will you, please take some ___ boxes and put them ___ your pockets? ‘Why don’t you leave them ___ your trunk?’ asked the other passenger. ‘Because I don’t want to pay duty ___ them’ answered the first passenger. ‘All right’ said the passenger ___ the window. ‘Give them ___ me. But I must tell you I’ll not return them ___ you. ‘Why?’ ‘Because I am a French Customs officer.’
1. Fill in the gaps with the correct prepositions:
1. Trees always look very beautiful ___ spring when they are in blossom.
2. She was so angry that she left the room ___ saying good bye.
3. She was dressed ___ blue that day and looked rather smart.
4. The small table was ___ the corner of the living room.
5. You can find me ___ home in the evening.
6. Instead ___ going home he went to the pub.
7. Speaking frankly ___ general he is right.
2. Choose the correct word to complete the sentences:
1. What will you do ___ these circumstances?
a) under; b) over; c) after.
2. Hurry ___ because the train is just on the platform.
a) up; b) on; c) from.
3. He was red ___ anger and shouted at them.
a) from; b) at; c) with.
4. It is ___ what to do in this situation. It must be your decision.
a) up to now; b) up to you; c) up to it.
5. I don’t like to speak ___ people like him. He is always boasting.
a) at; b) of; c) to.
6. When you come we’ll talk it ___ It is a very serious question.
a) over; b) under; c) after.
7. It was clear ___ everybody that he was lying.
a) at; b) on; c) to.
8. She was so pleased ___ this present.
a) with; b) at; c) on.
3. Translate the following words into Russian and learn their pronunciation:
Research; applied; knowledge; development; appropriateness; reference; value; environmental; tools; behavioral; multifunctioning; licensing; installations; overwhelmingly
4. Fill in the gaps with the suitable word to complete the sentences:
1. Engineers use their knowledge of science, mathematics, and appropriate experience to find ___ solutions to a problem.
2. Engineers typically attempt to predict how well ___ designs will perform to their specifications prior to full-scale production.
3. As with all modern scientific and technological endeavours, computers and software ___ an increasingly important role.
4. Using computer-aided design software, engineers ___ more easily create drawings and models of their designs.
5. Engineering is a subject that ranges ___ large collaborations to small individual projects.
5. BRAINSTORMING: Explain in English the meaning of the words below:
6. Translate the words with prefixes into Russian:
co-; re-; ex-; inter-: Cooperate, intercontinental, ex-president, international, rewrite, repaint, ex-servicemen, coeducational
bi-; pre-; semi-; counter-: Counterattack, bicycle, prehistoric, semicircle, bilingual, bilateral, preschool, counterespionage, semidetached semi-conscious
post-; mono-; anti-; non-: Postgraduate, nonstop, monosyllable, nonsense, postwar, monorail, antifreeze, non-corroding, non-dimensional, non-freezing
multi-; trans-; super-; de-: Deforested, transatlantic, derailed, superhuman, transplant, multiracial, depopulated, supernatural, supersonic, multimillionaire
pro-; sub-; uni-; tri-: Subway, procomununist, submarine, subterranean, uniform, tricycles, probritish, triangle, pro-war, unisex
over-; under-: Overwork, oversleep, underdone, overcharge, undergraduate, underpaid, underpopulated, overcrowded, underdeveloped, overeat, underestimate
7. Translate the following compound words:
Broadband; clockwork; railroad; gunpowder; tramway; waterway; pipeline; railway; highway; airway; airplane; skateboard; low-pollution; air-resistance; troubleshooter; broadcast; dial-up; gateway; network; telnet; workstation
8. Translate the following terms analyzing their word-formation model:
9. Read and memorize the following words and word combinations:
10. Read and translate the text:
Text 7 A
The history of the concept of «engineering» stems from the earliest times when humans began to make clever inventions, such as the pulley, lever, or wheel, etc. The exact etymology of the word engineer, however, is a person occupationally connected with the study, design, and implementation of engines. Hence, an engineer, essentially, is someone who makes useful or practical inventions.
The first electrical engineer is considered to be William Gilbert, with his 1600 publication of De Magnete, who was the originator of the term «electricity». The first steam engine was built in 1698 by mechanical engineer Thomas Savery.
With the rise of engineering as a profession in the nineteenth century the term became more narrowly applied to fields in which mathematics and science were applied to these ends. Similarly, in addition to military and civil engineering the fields then known as the mechanic arts became incorporated into engineering. The first PhD in engineering (technically, applied science and engineering) awarded in the United States went to William Gibbs at Yale University in 1863; it was also the second PhD awarded in science in the U.S.
Now engineering science is among the world’s top undergraduate engineering programmes. Its mission is to prepare the students for careers at the forefront of research, teaching, design and professional practice in applied science and engineering, or for careers in other professions to which they can bring their superior knowledge of applied science and engineering to bear.
Modern Engineering includes technology, but is also concerned with development and understanding of technological systems and the products. It is also concerned with non-technological approaches. Technical engineering is the activity of transforming and transporting (1) of materials and forces of nature and (2) of energy and information, which are technical measures of utility. This statement excludes reference to value and method. To complete the understanding of modern engineering, one should identify its values, its societal and environmental objectives and its tools. Scientific methods of engineering are applied in several fields not connected directly to manufacture and construction. Modern engineering is characterized by the broad application of what is known as systems engineering principles.
A related field of engineering, human-factors engineering, also known as ergonomics, received wide attention in the late 1970s and the '80s when the safety of nuclear reactors was questioned following serious accidents that were caused by operator errors, design failures, and malfunctioning equipment. Human-factors engineering seeks to establish criteria for the efficient, human-centered design of, among other things, the large, complicated control panels that monitor and govern nuclear reactor operations. Engineering is the design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes. One who practices engineering is called an engineer.
The broad discipline of engineering encompasses a range of specialized subdisciplines that focus on the issues associated with developing a specific kind of product, or using a specific type of technology. The crucial and unique task of the engineer is to identify, understand, and interpret the constraints on a design in order to produce a successful result. It is usually not enough to build a technically successful product; it must also meet further requirements. Constraints may include available resources, physical, imaginative or technical limitations, flexibility for future modifications and additions, and other factors, such as requirements for cost, safety, marketability, and serviceability. Engineers use their knowledge of science, mathematics, and appropriate experience to find suitable solutions to a problem. Engineers typically attempt to predict how well their designs will perform to their specifications prior to full-scale production.
As with all modern scientific and technological endeavors, computers and software play an increasingly important role.
Computers are increasingly used for solving complex problems as well as for handling, storing, and generating the enormous volume of data modern engineers must work with.
TEXT AND VOCABULARY EXERCISES
11. Find in the text the words or phrases which mean the same as:
12. Find in the text the synonyms to the following words:
13. Find in the text the antonyms to the following words:
14. Find the English equivalents to the following Russian words:
15. Give Russian equivalents to the following word combinations:
engineering programmes; to prepare the students for careers; professional practice; understanding of technological systems; non-technological approaches; scientific methods; various engineering disciplines; human-factors engineering; to establish criteria for the efficient, human-centered design; solving complex problems
16. Choose among the words in parentheses the one that corresponds to the text above to complete the sentences:
1. Engineering Science is among the world’s top undergraduate engineering ___.
(a. contents; b. context; c. programmes)
2. Its mission is ___ the students for careers at the forefront of research, teaching, design and professional practice in applied science and engineering.
(a. to prepare; b. to make; c. to learn)
3. Modern Engineering is ___ by the broad application of systems engineering principles.
(a. defined; b. known; c. characterized)
4. Human-factors engineering, also known as ___ received wide attention in the late 1970s and the 1980s.
(a. ergonomics; b. economics; c. environment)
5. Ergonomics seeks to establish ___ for the efficient human-centered design of the large, complicated control panels that monitor and govern nuclear reactor operations.
(a. foundations; b. theories; c. criteria)
6. Among various recent trends in the engineering profession, licensing and computerization are the most ___.
(a. widespread; b. large; c. useful)
7. Computers are increasingly ___ for solving complex problems as well as for handling, storing, and generating the enormous volume of data.
(a. described; b. written; c. used)
17. Read Text 7A once more. In pairs, discuss the statements below. Say what you think about them and ask your partner if he/she agrees or disagrees with you. Use the following phrases to help you:
1. Engineering science is among the world’s top undergraduate engineering programmes.
2. Its mission is to prepare the students only for careers at the forefront of research, teaching, design and professional practice in applied science and engineering.
3. Modern engineering is concerned with development and understanding of technological systems and products.
4. To complete the understanding of modern engineering, one should identify its values, its societal and environmental objectives and its tools.
5. Scientific methods of engineering are applied in several fields connected to manufacture and construction.
6. The systems approach is a methodology of decision-making in design, operation or construction.
7. Human-factors engineering seeks to establish criteria for the efficient, human-centered design of the large, complicated control panels that monitor and govern nuclear reactor operations.
8. Among various recent trends in the engineering profession, licensing and computerization are the most widespread.
18. Fill in the gaps with the words from the box:
Computers are part of many machines and devices, that once required continual human supervision and 1 ___. Today, computers in security systems 2 ___ in safer environment. Computers in cars improve energy 3 ___. These 4 ___ machines are designed to take over some of the basic tasks previously 5 ___ by people. With small computing 6 ___ people are able to spend more time doing what they often do best - being 7 ___. Computers can help people work 8 ___ creatively.
Check your answers on p. 280.
19. Read the text to learn about the principles of the engineering science division:
Text 7 B
Principles of the Engineering Science Division
There is no unique principle for or any constancy to the way in which the individual sciences and technologies within engineering are originally placed and subsequently grouped. It may be according to association: public health and environmental engineering are traditionally part of civil engineering because of civil engineering’s concern with sanitation. However, medical and chemical principles are required. It may be according to where related technologies exist: thus industrial engineering began and often continues in mechanical engineering.
It may be according to where the basic principles are found. Power engineering and energy are largely electro-mechanical and may be found associated with either mechanical or electrical engineering. As the chemistry of combustion, as in fluidized beds, becomes important in the context of pollution control, furnace design, traditionally part of mechanical engineering, becomes of interest to chemical engineers.
Because of the thermal and energy aspect, heating, ventilation and air-conditioning as well as refrigeration are part of mechanical engineering. It may be according to the type of system to which application is found. Thus, controls are primarily of interest in mechanical, electrical, chemical and guidance technologies.
It may be according to physical conditions or climate. Rural applications of engineering are usually agricultural and civil while mechanical, electrical and communications technologies are usually imported. Thus rural and primitive and remote regions applications are often, by force of routine, part of civil or agricultural engineering.
Mechanical, electrical, communications technology is largely industrial and urban. Cold regions engineering, which includes topics such as materials and systems behavior at low temperatures and ice mechanics, is a specialty found in places like Alaska, Siberia and the Antarctic. It is clear that the categories in engineering are not fixed. Nor, in practice, are there absolute schemes which define the categories because the boundaries to the divisions are somewhat circumstantial.
TEXT AND VOCABULARY EXERCISES
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