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Make up situations using the English equivalents of the words given in exercise 32

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35. Choose among the words in parentheses the one that corresponds to the text above to complete the sentences:


1. Automobile use obviously ___ a variety of advantages such as performance, comfort, status, speed, and convenience.

(a. produces; b. fulfils; c. does)

2. The acute growth in the total number of vehicles also gives rise to congestion at peak traffic hours on major thoroughfares, in business districts and often throughout the ___ area.

(a. urban; b. rural; c. metropolitan)

3. Most road infrastructures are subsidized as they are considered a ___ service.

(a. private; b. public; c. mixed)

4. Planning and the ensuing allocation of public funds aim towards improving road and parking facilities in an ongoing attempt ___congestion.

(a. to avoid; b. to reach; c. to mount to)

5. Cities are important generators and attractors of movements, which have ___ a set of geographical paradoxes that are self-reinforcing.

(a. created; b. done; c. made)

6. There are several levels of automobile dependency with their corresponding land use patterns and alternatives to ___.

(a. immobility; b. smoothness; c. mobility)

7. The second half ___ the 20th century saw the adaptation of many cities in North America and Europe to automobile circulation.

(a. of; b. in; c. at)

8. Motorized transportation was seen as a powerful symbol of ___ and development.

(a. unmodernity; b. modernity; c. antiquity)

9. ___ were constructed, streets were enlarged, and parking lots were set often disrupting the existing urban fabric.

(a. roads; b. lines; c. highways)

36. Work in pairs, think of some questions to review the contents of Text 8C and ask each other. Use the word combinations below:


§ automobile dependency § to avoid congestion
§ a variety of advantages § transport planning measures
§ growth of vehicles § urban mobility


Consult the TEXTS FOR SUPPLEMENTARY READING and complete the information about congestion (Text 25), the urban transit challenge (Text 26), and automobiles (Text 27). Be ready to discuss the information you have read.


38. Fill in the gaps with the words from the box:


tendency congestion protection private worsening costs suffers transport improvement


The tendency to rely on 1 ___ cars, buses, and taxis is explained by the lower costs of road solutions in the short term. The longer-term social costs and negative externalities have been ignored and are rarely passed on to users in terms of higher private 2 ___. Apart from lost time and, recently, a 3 ___ for public transport to raise its fares, the majority of these externalities are passed on as social costs. As a result, there has been little sign of 4 ___ in the transport sector in America's major cities; most of the evidence points to 5 ___ congestion, longer journeys, and slower traffic speeds. It is difficult to say who 6 ___ most from this deterioration. Bus passengers are certainly paying more in terms of longer journeys, and in recent years fare levels have also risen as transport subsidies have been cut. These changes have clearly hit the poor, as the bus is their principal method of 7 ___. But car-owners have also suffered from growing 8 ___ in terms of longer journey times. Their main 9 ___ is that at least they can sit in comfort as the traffic crawls along.


Check your answers on p. 280


39. Fill in the gaps with the prepositions from the box:


Sahara Driving


after; among; at (2); down; for (3); in (5); of (3); off (2); on (6); over; under; with (5)

Boring. That’s what driving is like ___ American interstate highways. I fight to stay awake ___ the wheel because there is little effort needed as I steer my car ___ the wide straight stretch ___ asphalt. Boredom is built into the highway’s design.

For example, fences alongside the freeway keep interesting animals and pedestrians ___ the roadway; white and yellow lines serve to encourage drivers to keep to their lanes (no excitement there); and, the smooth roadbed eliminates most bumps. I’ safer, they say. Perhaps, but I'd be happy to exchange that security ___ the always-changing, exciting experience of driving ___ the Sahara Desert.

For one thing, the sand never stays ___ one place. Road maintenance crews are hard-pressed to keep ahead ___ the restless sand as it seeks to overrun major highways. I have a vivid memory ___ a warm sunny day ___ April when my wife and I were enjoying a drive ___ the majestic white dunes near El Oued, Algeria. The good asphalt road was easy to drive on until it ended abruptly ___ a dune which had drifted ___ it during the night. We came prepared and ___ an hour of shoveling, we managed to be ___ our way. Sand ___ top of the road isn’t the only problem.

Sand underneath the asphalt can also cause some surprises ___ the unaware motorist. Underlying sand can shift, thereby causing the road to sink. What is the result? The seemingly solid roadbed can suddenly be punctuated ___ immense potholes — some as large as 3 feet across and a foot deep. Imagine what that can do to the car that hits it at 60 mph! I have dented more than one wheel rim ___ such potholes.

However, the Sahara Desert has more than sand to contend with. You might have to share your normally empty driving space ___ anything from jackals and wandering camels to enormous trans-Saharan trucks or vans loaded ___ German tourists.

If one of these obstacles forces you ___ the road, you might puncture a tire ___ sharp rocks or find yourself axle-deep ___ sand. One hot summer day, we found ourselves stuck behind a slow military convoy, but, because ___ the narrow road bed, we could not pass until the convoy pulled over ___ a rest stop. We just followed the last truck and exchanged smiles and waves ___ the bored soldiers.

The excitement of motoring ___ the Sahara has its advantages, the chief of which is that one is never tempted to sleep ___ the wheel. With the lovely sand dunes ___ all sides and ___ the interesting presence of others who share the road, who could ever be bored?

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