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The public education in Russia is free which is guaranteed by constitution. Private institutions which charge fees for education account for 1% of preschool enrolment, 0.5% of primary school enrollment and 17% of university-level students.

The state preschool education is represented by kindergartens (nurseries) – full day child-care institutions for the children under 7 years of age.

Russian children go to school at the age between 6 and 7. During the eleven-year school term pupils get primary education (grades 1-4), basic general secondary education (grades 5-9) and complete general secondary education (grades 10-11).

There are various types of secondary schools: general secondary schools, schools specializing in a certain subject, gymnasiums, lyceums and so on.

Study program in general secondary schools includes Russian, Russian Literature, Mathematics, Algebra and Geometry (mostly studied in senior classes), Physics, Chemistry, Russian History, World History, Geography, Biology, Foreign Languages (English, German, French, or Spanish), usually one at a time, Physical Education, Art, Technology, Music, Astronomy.

Upon completion of a nine-year course the student can transfer to a vocational school or college to get both a working skill qualification and a complete general secondary school certificate.

Higher education is provided by wide curriculum universities and narrow specialization institutes. To enter a higher educational establishment students should pass the Unified State Exams.

There are two levels of higher education: a student can take a 4-year course leading to a Bachelor's degree, and then a year or two-year course leading to a Master's degree. There are two successive postgraduate degrees: Candidate of sciences, which is equivalent to Western Ph.D., and Doctor of sciences.

 

1. Прочитайте текст и найдите в нем английские эквиваленты для следующих слов и словосочетаний и выпишите их:

Народное образование; частные учебные заведения; взимать плату за обучение; начальная школа; до семилетнего возраста; одиннадцатилетний срок обучения, полное общее среднее образование; иностранные языки; специализироваться по какому-нибудь предмету; аттестат об общем среднем образовании; узкая специализация; по окончании девятилетнего курса обучения; поступить в высшее учебное заведение; сдать ЕГЭ; два уровня высшего образования.

 

Верны ли следующие утверждения?

1. The curriculum of general secondary schools usually includes psychology and economics.

2. Universities have wider curricula than institutes.

3. The first university degree is a master's degree.

4. Private educational institutions are free.

5. After finishing the ninth form pupils can go to a college or to a vocational school.

6. Russian children go to kindergarten at the age between 6 and 7.

 

3 .Найдите в тексте ответы на следующие вопросы:

1. The public education in Russia is free, isn’t it?

2. Do private institutions charge fees for education?

3. Are there many private educational institutions in Russia?



4. At what age do Russian children go to school?

5. What types of secondary schools are there in Russia?

6. What types of higher educational establishments are there in Russia?

7. What exams should students pass to enter a higher educational establishment?

8. What levels of higher education are there in Russia?

9. Are there any postgraduate degrees in Russia?

Составьте письменно рассказ (15 предложений) об образовании в своей стране.

Theme GREAT BRITAIN

 

Тематический список слов:

highly developed - высокоразвитый

industrial – индустриальный, производственный

country - страна

island - остров

corner - угол

separate - отделять

comparatively - сравнительно

plain – ровный, равнина

mountain - гора

moorland – болотистая местность

orchard - сад

consist of – состоять из

mild - мягкий

shore - берег

bring - приносить

important - важный

capital - столица

busy - занятый

shipbuilding - кораблестроение

various – различный, разный

cotton – хлопок, хлопковый

power – власть, сила

monarchy - монархия

limit - ограничивать

chamber - палата

representative – представитель

 

Great Britain is a highly developed industrial country with a population of about 58 million people. Great Britain is an island. It lies off a north-west corner of Europe. The English Channel separates it from the mainland. Great Britain is comparatively small and it is a museum model of relief. The scenery is various. That is why within the island we find the finest combinations of sea and highland, plain and mountain, moorland and orchard.

The British Isles consist of (include) England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. The mountains in Great Britain are not very high. The highest regions are in Scotland, in North Wales and Lake District. The highest peak in Scotland is Ben Nevis 1343 m.

The climate in Britain is mild and rather changeable. It is thanks to the Gulf Stream which brings warm weather to the British shores. It is not very cold in winter and it is not very hot in summer. Rain falls every month of a year. As the Englishmen say, August is the best month to visit Britain.

There are many large and small towns in Great Britain. The most important cities are: London, Birmingham, Manchester, Liverpool, Glasgow, Sheffield.

LONDON is the capital of the country and it is situated on the river Thames. It is a busy port and an important industrial and political centre.

GLASGOW the largest town in Scotland is situated on the river Clyde and it is the centre of British shipbuilding industry.

BIRMINGHAM is not as large as London but it is the greatest metal working centre. Various articles are produced here and it is the second largest city of the country.

MANCHESTER is the centre of cotton industry. It is a very beautiful city with many parks.

SHEFFIELD is another big town in the centre of England. It is famous all over the world for its manufacture of steel goods.

LIVERPOOL is the second largest port in Britain. It is the home town of Beatles – the famous singers and musicians who found a new trend in Music.

Great Britain is a monarchy but the power of the Queen, now Elisabeth the second, is limited by Parliament. The British Parliament consists of two chambers: the House of Commons and the House of Lords. At present time the Prime minister of Great Britain is David Cameron, the representative of the Conservative party. Other political parties are: the Labour party, the Liberal Democratic Party.

 





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