Stylistic meaning and its structure
Phonetic features – casual often careless prononctiation, use of deviant forms (gonna, wanna)
Reduced or contracted forms – when we put apostrophe in.
Omission some elements due to the tempo
There is an emphases of intonation – use of onomatopoeic words.
Morphological features – evaluative suffices formed on morphological and phonetic analogy with other nominal words. Baldish, moody, okey-dockey, deary, doggy.
Syntactical features – simple short sentences usually dialogues (question – answer type), use of echo-questions, parallel structures, repetitions. Assyntatic coordination in complex sentences, ellips, some omissions and totollogy, get-answers (well, indeed)
Lexical features – combination of neutral, familiar and low colloquial vocabulariry, including slang, vulgar words, words of general meaning – cat, job, thing stuff, limited voc resoses. Some (good) guys. Nice men, awesome. Some colloquial interjection – hey, boy, wow. Use of hyperboly. Totalogical substituon of personal pronoun by some other nouns – you baby, Johny boy. Mixture of vulgar words and curses. Use of phrasal verbs, and some compositional features. Use deviant language in all the levels, strong emotional colouring, loose syntactical organization, non-special compositional patterns.
Morphological features – use of non-perfect verb forms
Syntactical features – rhetorical questions, in a headlines the use of impersonal sentences, omission of articles, a news items and articles, short sentences, complex coordination, prepositional phrases, absence of exclamatory sentences, logical arrangements of sentences. Lexical features – newspaper clichés and set phrases, terminological variety – sports, politics, technologis, abbreviations, achronims, numerous of proper names, international dates, words, figure, elevated bookish words. In headlines – phraseology and paughn. Irony, illiteration.
Compositional features – precision, logic and carefully selected voc, quotation, direct speech, represent speech. Use of parallel constractions in all the speeches simplicity structural syntax and argumentative power. In headline use the devices to catch one`s attention, high degree of compression and graphical means. In news items strict arrangement of titles and subtitiles, emphases on the headline, subdivision on paragraph. The most important info is carried in the opening paragraph.
The style of official docs.
Adherens to the norm, outdated, even archaic.
Syntactical features – use long sentences with several types of coordination and use of passive and participal constructions, use of objects, attributes and all sorts of modifiers, use participle 1 and 2 as openers.
Lexical features – stylistically neutral and bookish voc, use of terminology in legal sphere, testimony, trial, use of proper names, enterprises, companies, abstraction of persons – use of party instead of the name, clichés, opening phrases, archaic words, foreign words esp. latin and French, aabr, contractions, use words of denotative meaning, a seldom use of substitute words.
Compositional features – graphical layout, clear subdivision of the text into sub=units, logical errangement of the units, devision of the parts, accurate use of punctuation.
Scientific and academic style.
Morphological features – terminologically word building and word derivation, use of neologisms, the use of we instead of I, frequent use of impersonal constructions, and some syntactical features: syntactical precision to insure the logical sequence of thought and argumentation, direct word order, use of long sentences with subordinate clauses and use of gerund, participal, avoid of ellipses, the conjunction that and which can be omitted, the use of nominal constructions rather than verbal ones, frequent use of passive voice, that is to achieve impersonality and objectivity, impersonal forms and sentences – as you mean that, mention should be mean and some lexical features, extensive use of bookish words (cognitive), scientific terminology and phrases, use the words of their primary dictionary meaning rather than their contextual meaning, restricted use the words with the emotive coloring, expressive phraseology and colloquial voc.
Compositional features. Compositionally independent on the scientific genres. There is the usage of formulars supplied with commentaries, descriptive narration supplied with argumentation and interpretation, logical and consistence narration, use of sertations and references and footnotes, some set phrases to impheseize their logical frequence, use of double conjunction – either or.., structural arrangement : introduction, paragraphs and conclusion.
The belle-letters style.
The function is esthetical. The purpose is not only to prove, but suggest some interpretation of smth. Forcing the reader to see the point of the writer. Use genuine – imagery, the use of words in contextual meaning, creation of some special lexical environment, usually voc, which reflexs the writer`s pow and personal evaluation of things.
Lexical and syntactical synchrosy. Poetry – rhythmic and phonetic arrangement and ordely form. Syntactic and Semantic aspects depend on rhythmic.
Emotive prose. The imaginary is not so rich as in poetry, the percentage of contextual words is not as high as in poetry. The combination of the literary variant of the language with a colloquial, the combination of spoken and written languages, detached constructions, unexpected ways of combining sentences. The use of monologues rather than dialogues.
The drama. It is the language of plays. Unlike the poetry here there is mostly direct speech and dialogs. The author`s speech is excluded, except for some playwriter`s remarks, stage directions.
Stylistic meaning and its structure
There are two types of meaning – denotational and stylistical one. 1-st order language is speech and the 2nd order language is abstract notion (in the dictionary).
There are some factors that make stylistic meaning indispensible. It is the expression of the quality of a linguistic sign belonging to the objective reality. There are some words which differ from each other by their stylistic meaning. In order to use the word correctly we should know the stylistic system the word take place, for example – the old man died –neutral one, the old man has deseased –bookish, the old geezer has croaked - colloqual. When the stylistic meaning is realized in speech we deal with stylistic effect.
The structure of stylistic meaning. The stylistic meaning is made up of the following components: 1) functional stylistic component – what is the purpose of using this or that, it detearmings the defeanit communicative sphere the word belongs to. Stomach – neutral, abdomen, tummy, bread-basket. Expressive emotive stylistic component – it reveals a type or degree of expressivness. Normative stylistic component expressive relation to the linguistic norm. Horse – zero level neutral word, steed – hack – below the zero.
Expressivness, emotivness and evoluation.
P 66 seminar 1.
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