Task 5. Complete the sentences
1) As the students want to become not ... but good teachers they must pay attention to modern pedagogical literature.
2) The students must study not only, their textbooks but read many special ... articles in Russian and foreign languages.
3) The students should continue to study ... language.
4) Already in the first year some students join students' ... societies.
5) The students in the scientific societies work on those ... which they care for.
6) In the Pedagogics scientific society the subject of the students' work may be the study of the ... of Pedagogics.
7) Some students join the ... scientific society where they study the psychological peculiarities of children.
8) Scientific societies will help future teachers to understand better the character of many pupils and to be more... .
Task 6. Ask your friend about scientific societies. Use Task 1.
PRE-SCHOOL EDUCATION IN RUSSIA
Education in Russia is provided predominantly by the state and is regulated by the Ministry of Education and Science. Regional authorities regulate education within their jurisdictions within the prevailing framework of federal laws. In 2004 state spending for education amounted to 13% of consolidated state budget. In 2011, the spending on education amounted to $ 20 billion.
Before 1990 the course of school training in Soviet Union was 10-years, but at the end of 1990 the 11-year course had been officially entered. Education in state-owned secondary schools is free; first tertiary (university level) education is free with reservations: a substantial number of students are enrolled for full pay. Male and female students have equal shares in all stages of education, except tertiary education where women lead with 57%.
The literacy rate in Russia, according to the 2002 census, is 99.4% (99.7% men, 99.2% women).
According to the 2002 census, 68% of children (78% urban and 47% rural) aged 5 are enrolledin kindergartens. According to UNESCO data, enrollment in any kind of pre-school program increased from 67% in 1999 to 84% in 2005.
Kindergartens, unlike schools, are regulated by regional and local authorities. The Ministry of Education and Science regulates only a brief pre-school preparation program for the 5–6 year old children. In 2004 the government attempted to charge the full cost of kindergartens to the parents; widespread public opposition caused a reversal of policy. Currently, local authorities can legally charge the parents not more than 20% of costs. Twins, children of university students, refugees, Chernobyl veterans and other protected social groups are entitled to free service.
The Soviet system provided for nearly universal primary (nursery, age 1 to 3) and kindergarten (age 3 to 7) service in urban areas, relieving working mothers from daytime childcare needs.
By the 1980s, there were 88,000 preschool institutions; as the secondary-education study load increased and moved from the ten to eleven-year standard, the kindergarten program shifted from training basic social skills, or physical abilities, to preparation for entering the school level.
After the collapse of the Soviet Union the number decreased to 46,000; kindergarten buildings were sold as real estate, irreversibly rebuilt and converted for office use. At the sametime, a minority share of successful state-owned kindergartens, regarded as a vertical lift to quality schooling, flourished throughout the 1990s. Privately owned kindergartens, although in high demand, did not gain a significant share due to administrative pressure; share of children enrolled in private kindergartens dropped from 7% in 1999 to 1% in 2005.
The improvement of the economy after the 1998 crisis, coupled with historical demographic peak, resulted in an increase in birth rate, first recorded in 2005. Large cities encountered shortageof kindergarten vacancies earlier, in 2002. Moscow's kindergarten waiting list included 15,000 children; in the much smaller city of Tomsk (population 488,000) it reached 12,000.
Provide framework law amount reservation increase regulate attempt charge cost widespread enroll cause reversal protect entitle collapse decrease irreversibly convert minority share quality flourish although demand drop couple birth rate shortage
READ AND TRANSLATE THE TEXT. DO THE TASKS.
Why do children play?
Play is the core of a child’s development in the world. A recently born child is new to the world and the world is new to him.as play begins, the child learns: about himself or her self, about other people, about the world and how it works.
Play can take up all the child’s attention because there is a lot of things to explore in the world: shape (round and square), texture (rough, smooth, slippery), consistency (hard, soft), taste.
Children of different ages reach different “play stages”. The progress through these stages is a matter of maturity. The adult must know the average ages at which a child masters certain skills. This knowledge will help the adult to how to provide play opportunities, which will help the child on to the next stage of development.
The specialists must be aware of the importance of children’s play and it is their job to:
- provide play space
- organize the play materials
- allow opportunities for messy play
- join in throwing a ball, playing board games
- make opportunities for children to be together so they can play
1. Musical bumps: everyone jumps up and down in the time to the music. Each time it stops, they all sit down. Pick out the last one to sit down, but don’t make them sit out for the rest of the game. The winners can be the ones who have never been last.
2. Musical balloons: have one fewer balloon than the players. When the music stops each player has to grab a balloon. Spot the person (IT) without a balloon.
3. Hot potato: everyone sits in a circle and passes around a potato. When the music stops, whoever has a potato must do a forfeit, such as run around the circle and sit down.
4. Simon says: one person is Simon. He stands facing the others and shouts out instructions, such as “Simon says ”,touch your toes”. Everyone has to obey but if he leaves out the “Simon says”, anyone who obeys the instruction is “out”.
5. Squeak, piggy, squeak:everyone sits on the floor except for one player, who is blind-folded. He tries to catch hold of the others. Each time he does, he says “Squeak, piggy, squeak” and the person has to squeak. If he guesses who it is, the squeaker id blindfolded.
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