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Means of form-building. Synthetic and analytical forms



2015-11-18 3187 Обсуждений (0)
Means of form-building. Synthetic and analytical forms 4.80 из 5.00 5 оценок




Morphology and syntax as parts of gr. Main units and types of relations between gr. units in language and speech

Units of gr: morpheme, word, w group, sentence, suprapharsel unities. Every unit stays in relations with other units of the same level. Synt-linear rel, in speech. Paradigm- rel outside the lines, in lang.

Functword- a unit of lang both gr & lexical, sem & struct unity, ready-made u, naming u=> nominative func. Sentence u of lang & u of speech, not a ready-made u, naming & communicative u => nominative& communicative func.

Grammar is devided into:-morphology -syntax

Morphology studies paradigmatic rel of ws (structure, forms, classific of ws) Syntax studies syntagmatic rel of ws & paradmatic& synt rel of sent(structure, forms, classific of sents)

Paradigmatic syntax-diff forms of sents(- ? !) Syntagmatic morphology –linear connection of ws

The basic units are:morphemes and words.

A paradigm-is a set of unit related to each other by association with some distinctive features.:

teacherslearnswrites speaks

grammeme-is a paradigme based on the sameness of grammar forms. Lexeme

 

 

Main gr notions.gr mng and gr.form. Gr categories. Method of opposition.

Gr mng.- plane of content. It is general, abstract, indirect(connected with objective reality through the lexical mng), obligatory, relative(it is revealed in relations of w forms: speak-speaks)

Gr form- plane of expression- wide sence: all means of expressing gr mngs.; narrow s- denote means of exp a particular gr mng.

In En no direct correspondence btw gr mng & gr form=> 1.2 or more units of th e plane of expression mau correspond to 1 unit of plane of content(allomorphs)-boys-children. 2. 2 or more units of the plane of content -//-1 unit of plane expression (polysemy, homonymy) –s: boy’s, dogs, asks.

A gr category - is a generalized gram mg revealed through formal & meaningful opposition of variants of 1 & same unit.

The features of gram category: 1.is represented by 2 gramm form( at least) 2.one word can represent diff gram categories: boy’s (number and case) 3.one word form can express only one gram mg of the same category 4.one particular gram mg can not be expressed in all forms of the word

asked- past tense, non-cont aspect, non-perfect order, active voice.

Gr categories are revealed on the basis on the method of oppositions. Types of opp: 1) acc to the number of members( binary, ternary, quaternary) 2)-//- quality: privative (strong memb(special marker)<-> weak- dog-dogs); equipollent-both membs strong & marked(am-is); gradual- degrees of comparison.

Oppositional reduction: 1.neutralisation- the weak memb acquires the mng of the strong one(Tonight we start for London) 2)Transposition-the strong memb is used in the context typical for the weak memb(She is always complaining of smth)

 

Structure of words. Types of morphemes.

The main task of morphology is the study of the structure of ws. The smallest meaningful unit of gr-morpheme. Free m-can occur as separate ws <-> bound. Monomorphemic <-> polymorphemic w.

Morph: lexical(roots), lexico-gramm(w-build affixes) & gr(form-building aff).

Positional variants of morpheme- allomorphs( cats, dogs, foses, oxen.)

3types of morphemic distribution: contrastive(position same< mng –diff: charming-charmed), non-contrastive (position&mng-same: learned-learnt), complementary( posit-diff, mng-same: asks-theaches)

Zero morpheme-mengful absence of m(book-books)

Semi-bound m-word m(funct of the m performed by a separate w : will work)

Means of form- b & gram f are divided: 1)synthetical (bound m: inflextions, sound interchange, suppletivity) 2)analytical 1.2 parts(w-operator& notional p) 2.anal f develop gr idiomaticity – is writing 3. within a cat anal f should be opposed to synth ones(is writing-writes) 4. funct as 1 memb in the sent 5. aux are lexically empty 5. lex mng is understood from the npotional part 6. aux change grammatically.

 

 

Means of form-building. Synthetic and analytical forms.

Means of form- b & gram f are divided: 1)synthetical (bound m: inflextions, sound interchange (sell-sold), suppletivity)

2)analytical (with the help of semi-bound m) 1.2 parts(w-operator& notional p) 2.anal f develop gr idiomaticity(the mng of the whole differs from the mng of its parts) – is writing 3. within a cat anal f should be opposed to synth ones(is writing-writes) 4. funct as 1 memb in the sent 5. aux are lexically empty 6 lex mng is understood from the notional part7. aux change grammatically

is more difficult an analytical comparative degree or is more difficult a free phrase?

an analytical form: 1) The actual meaning of formations like more difficult, (the) most difficult does not differ from that of the degrees of compar larger, (the) largest. 2) Qualitative adjectives, like difficult, express properties which may be present in different degrees, and therefore they are bound to have degrees of comparison.

a free phrase: 1) The words more and most have the same meaning in these phrases as in other phrases in which they may appear, e.g. more time, most people, etc. 2) there are also the phrases less difficult, (the) least difficult, and there seems to be no sufficient reason for treating the two sets of phrases in different ways, saying that more difficult is an analytical form, while less difficult is not. Besides, the very fact that more and less, (the) most and (the) least can equally well combine with difficult, would seem to show that they are free phrases and none of them is an analytical form

 


 



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