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C. Whose future profession do you find more interesting? Why?

D. Role-Playing. You are Olga and Mikhail. You've just met at
the conference organised during the week of Commercial Activity at

Your college. As you study at different faculties, you are interested in each other's studies. Tell each other about your faculties.

2. Discussion

Answer the following questions.

1.Is it an easy thing to choose a profession? 2. How and when did you make your choice? 3. What specialists are trained at your college? 4. What is your future speciality? 5. Why have you chosen this speciality? 6. What are your main subjects? Do you have any optional subjects? 7. Do students of your college have classes exclusively inside the college? 8. Where can you work after graduating from the college? 9. What duties will you have? 10. Is it easy for your college graduates to enter a university? Do you intend to continue your education?

3. General Comprehension

In groups, note down the ideas which you are likely to find in the text below judging by its headline. Compare your lists in class. Then read the text and check how many ideas are on your lists.

The Development of Education in the Republic of Belarus

The Republic of Belarus has entered the 21st century with a developed educational system. Such macroindicators as the level of the adult population literacy (99,8%) and coverage of the working population with basic, general secondary and vocational education (98%) are a vivid evidence. Belarus' leading place among the CIS participating states is largely accounted for by its educational potential.

During the past decade there was a stable growth in spending on education. The new Law on Education contains regulations which stipulate an increase in spending on education up to 10 % of the GDP.

Pre-school institutions are being modernized, and new establishments are being set up: kindergartens at home, seasonal and all-year-round playgrounds. Special attention is paid to the development of new institutions for villages, such as "kindergarten-schools".

Basic education has undergone reforms since 1998, which aim at increasing the quality of education according to the present-day demands. Belarus can boast the high quality of schooling. Belarusian schoolchildren have been awarded numerous medals, at international contests in biology, mathematics, physics, and chemistry.

A 10-grade assessment system has been introduced in order to enhance individual approach to pupils and students. Transition towards a single state exam is being gradually implemented; the exam is held in the form of centralized testing. Numerous educational materials have been published. They include school textbooks, teacher's books, wall maps on history and geography, fiction books from the "School Library" series.

Vocational schools and institutes have been transformed into vocational lyceums and colleges since 2001. Today there are already more than 40 lyceums and more than 50 colleges, which make up about 40% of all vocational educational institutions. Every year about 30% of all graduates of secondary vocational institutions enter higher educational establishments. They constitute 10% of full-time students, and more than 50% of distant learning students. The number of students in Belarus has risen to about 400,000. There are about 400 students per 10,000 residents.

In 2002 the Government of Belarus enacted a decree on higher education levels, and in 2004 the strategy of introducing a 2-stage system was approved. Each of the two successive stages represents a complete period of learning and provides professional qualification. Transition to a new structure of higher education will have been made by 2010.

A lot is being done to ensure the rights of people with special needs to basic and vocational education. Learning assistance centres, integrated education classes and special-need classes are being set up in general education schools; they are intended for the children previously regarded as incapable of learning. Teaching technologies aimed at improving children's health are being introduced.

Thousands of children have their rest in respite institutions, improve their health in wellness centres, round-the-clock and day­time camps.

4. Pronunciation

A. Circle the word in each line which has a different vowel sound. Listen to the teacher and check your answers.

1) graduate exam grade transition

2) transform award reform government

3) stipulate leading complete decree

4) number numerous approve school

В. Underline the main stress in each word. Practise saying the words.

Education, qualification, regulation, establishment, institute, constitute.

Word Study

A. Find international words in the text and write them out Learn
their correct pronunciation.

B. Give Russian equivalents to the following word combina­

a developed educational system; adult population literacy; working population; 10% of the GDP; seasonal and all-year-round playgrounds; to aim at improving children's health; to undergo reforms; according to the present-day demands; to be awarded numerous medals; to enhance individual approach to pupils and students; to ensure the rights of people with special needs to basic education; to be regarded as incapable of learning; to be transformed into vocational lyceums and colleges; to enter higher educational establishments; to enact a decree; a 2-stage system; 2 successive stages of learning; a complete period of learning; centralized testing.

C. Give English equivalents to the word combinations:

базовое общее образование; профессионально-техническое об­разование, как свидетельствуют макропоказатели; утвердить увели­чение затрат на образование; открывать новые учебные заведения; 10-балльная система оценки; школьные учебники; настенные кар­ты; из серии "Школьная библиотека"; составить около 40% от общего количества профессионально-технических учреждений; студенты дневного обучения; дистанционное обучение; переход к новой структуре высшего образования; круглосуточный лагерь; дневной лагерь.

D. Match the words from A with their opposites from B.


literacy, capable, centralized, complete, healthy, distant, enter leave, close, illiteracy, incomplete, unhealthy, decentralized, incapable

E. Match the words and expressions from A with the synonyms from B.


basic, modernize, complete, incapable, regard, round-the-clock, enhance, present-day, transform, contest, grade, establishment, set up, kindergarten nursery, change, institution, found, update, improve, fundamental, consider, competition, finished, twenty-four-hour, modern, mark, unable

F. Match a word from A with a word from В to make phrases.


1) vocational a) population
2) working b) system
3) set up c) education
4) undergo d) a reform
5) award e) institutions
6) assessment f) qualification
7) regard g) a medal
8) full-time h) a decree
9) enact i) testing
10) a centralized j) an establishment
11) professional k) as incapable
12) respite 1) students

G. Group the words according to the part of speech they belong to. What formal signs helped you to decide on the part of speech?

Successive, centralized, incapable, rehabilitation, assessment, establishment, macroindicator, vocational, largely, stipulate, modernize, seasonal, fiction, opportunity, healthy, previously.

Grammar Focus

A. Complete the sentences by using one of the words on the left and combining it with one of the prepositions on the right. Prepositions can be used more than once. If necessary, change the form of the words on the left.



regard according incapable aim into for
order account transform approach to of
question pay     as at

1. It was a ......... great importance to us. 2. The program is ...

... providing free access to quality education. 3. If everything goes ...

... plan, they should finish by Thursday. 4. In ....... the company to

be profitable, sales would need to rise by at least 60%. 5. We need

a fresh ....... assessment system in education. 6. Much attention is...

... specialised secondary institutions of education. 7. I ... it ... my

duty. 8. 1 knew that she was ........... combining work with studies.

9. Some general education schools have ............. gymnasiums and

lyceums. 10. These mistakes are ....... by his negligence.

B. Find passive sentences in the text. Name the passive forms and translate the sentences.

7. Diving Deeper

A. Give detailed answers to the following questions.

1. Is expenditure on education in our country increasing or decreasing? Prove your answer. 2. What new educational establishments have been founded in Belarus? 3. What has been the main aim of Belarusian educational reforms since 1998? 4. What major innovations have been introduced into the Belarusian system of education recently? 5. What has happened to vocational schools and institutes? 6. How many students are there in Belarus? 7. What decree on higher education was enacted by the Government of Belarus? 8. Are people with special needs taken good care of in Belarus?

B. Finish the sentences.

1. Almost all the population of the Republic of Belarus ... . 2. The country's expenditure on education makes up .... 3. Much attention is paid to pre — school institutions which ... .4. The quality of teaching at Belarusian schools is high, which can be proved by the fact that .... 5. A 10-grade assessment system aims at .... 6. The educational materials published include .... 7. Since 2001 vocational Lyceums and colleges ....

8. 30% of all graduates of secondary vocational institutions continue
their education in .... 9. The system of higher education is going to
consist of ... . 10. For the children with learning difficulties ... .

8. Speaking

A. Prove the statements using the information from the text.

• Belarus has got a developed system of education.

• A lot is being done in our country to improve the system of education.

• The Belarusians understand the importance of getting higher education.

• People with special needs are taken care of in our country.

B. Reread the text. Divide it into logical parts and make up its
outline. Speak on the changes in Belarusian system of education in
the 21st century covering the points of your outline. Say if you can
foresee any other changes.

9. General Comprehension

Read the text and say if the sentences are true or false.

1. The number of vocational and technical institutions of education in the Republic exceeds two hundred. 2. Most vocational and technical institutions of education provide both general education and vocational training. 3. Adults can't study at vocational and technical institutions of education. 4. Much more attention is paid to the training of single-profession workers. 5. There are both public and private specialized secondary institutions of education in Belarus. 6. There is a wide choice of specialties available at Belarusian specialized secondary institutions of education. 7. College students have only one main subject. 8. College graduates have a privilege of getting a higher education within a shorter period of time.

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