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IV. Прочитайте и устно переведите на русский язык весь текст. Письменно переведите абзац №1


Money – Functions, History, Value

People in various cultures think of money in different ways. A London banker and an African tribesman have different ideas of what money is. Many people think of money as a currency - metal coins and paper bill. We need it to buy the things we want. We also get money for the work that we do. So, money is a way of exchanging goods and services. In the course of time people searched for better ways of trading goods. They found out that metal, especially gold and silver, was very valuable. Some historians believe that the first coins were made at around 700 B.C. by the Lydians. But it was not until the late Middle Ages that coins became common throughout Europe. Metals were stamped and coins had to have a certain weight. People knew how many coins they needed to buy something because they had a fixed value.

Paper money came into use about 300 years ago. The idea came from goldsmiths who gave people pieces of paper in exchange for their gold. These bills could be exchanged for their gold later on. Until the middle of the 20th century governments all over the world had deposits of gold that was worth as much as the money they gave to their people. Paper money had many advantages. It was cheaper to make and easier to carry around.

But there were also dangers. Governments could produce as much paper money as they wanted. If they produced too many banknotes and gave them to the people, they would have too much money to spend. If there were not enough goods to buy, prices would go up. The money then would lose its value. We call this inflation.

Today, the amount of money in circulation is controlled by central banks. They make sure that paper money has a constant value. More and more people use credit cards to buy things. You don’t have to take real money with you.


V. Ответьте письменно на вопрос:

What advantages did paper money have?



Вариант №4

I. Подберите к словам соответствующие определения:

1) currency a) a reduction in the price of something

2) investment b) income

3) sale c) the process of selling goods or services for money

4) goal d) control of spending through taxation

5) promotion e) something that you hope to achieve

6) discount f) a move to a higher level in a company

7) earnings g) money used in a way that may earn you more


8) fiscal policy h) the system of money used in a particular country


Занесите свои ответы в таблицу:




II. Вставьте в каждое предложение подходящее по смыслу пропущенное слово:

sales rent promotion experience job goal competitors employment



1. The owner has just increased the ……. on our flat by 15%.

2. The latest research says that many people want to leave their …….and travel the world.

3. Now, employees regularly change companies perhaps because they

want …… and a higher salary.

4. ……agencies supply companies with different types of workers.

5. We look at what our ……. do, then we do it better.

6. Our ……. is to be number one in every area in which we operate.

7. We have more years of ……. of working in this sector than any other organization in this country.

8. …….increased by two percent last year; this is a rather disappointing result.


III. Выберите правильный вариант ответа:


a) We have to reduce our general ………… : we must cut costs

wherever we can.

b) Zangief must cut his travel, accommodation and entertainment

………… : he’ll have to stay in cheaper hotels and take his clients to

cheaper restaurants.


a) Supermarkets use a variety of tactics to attract and retain ……..

b) She advises ……. on their investments.


a) The…….of rebuilding the theatre will be 13 million pounds.

b) What’s the …….of this watch?


a) The ……. will create the biggest television company in the country.

b) Their ……. targets will be bigger and in more sensitive sectors.

Занесите свои ответы в таблицу:

a b a b a b a b



IV. Прочитайте и устно переведите на русский язык весь текст. Письменно переведите абзац №2.


Your shirt was made in Mexico and your shoes in China. Your CD player comes from Japan. Today goods are made and sold all over the world, thanks to globalization. We can exchange goods, money and ideas faster and cheaper than ever before. Modern communication and technology, like the Internet, cell phones or satellite TV help us in our daily lives. Globalization is not new. For thousands of years people have been trading goods and travelling across great distances. During the Middle Ages, merchants travelled along the Silk Road, which connected Europe and China. The modern age of globalization started with the Industrial Revolution at the end of the 18th century.

Today it is easier for companies to work in other countries. The Internet gives them the chance of reaching more customers around the world. However, there is a growing debate over globalization. Governments are in favour of globalization because the economy can grow. Other people are not so sure that there are only advantages. Here are some arguments from both sides. Globalization lets countries do what they can do best. If, for example, you buy cheap steel from another country you don’t have to make your own steel. You can focus on computers or other things. Globalization gives you a larger market. Consumers also profit from globalization. Products become cheaper and you can get new goods more quickly.

But globalization causes unemployment in industrialized countries because firms move their factories to places where they can get cheaper workers. Globalization may lead to more environmental problems. A company may want to build factories in other countries because environmental laws are not as strict as they are at home. Globalization can lead to financial problems . Some of the poorest countries in the world, especially in Africa, may get even poorer. Many experts say that we need a different kind of globalization in our world today.

IV. Ответьте письменно на вопрос:

What are disadvantages of globalization?

Вариант №5

I. Подберите к словам соответствующие определения:

1. account a) an amount of money that a person borrows from a bank

2. loan b) a rise in the number, amount, or degree of something

3. cash c) the work done by banks and other financial institutions

4. delivery d) someone who pays money for something

5. accommodation e) an arrangement in which a bank looks after your money

6. increase f) the process of bringing goods to a place

7. payer g) money in the form of notes and coins

8. banking h) a place for someone to stay, to live


Занесите свои ответы в таблицу:



II. Вставьте в каждое предложение подходящее по смыслу слово:

customers prices accommodation mortgage agreement bonus negotiations global


1. When did the two countries sign this …….?

2. …….is quite expensive at this ski resort.

3. Thanks to the Internet, we are now living in a ……. village.

4. If you want to borrow money to buy a house, you should ask the bank for a……

5. And you get a special ……. if the company’s sales go up by more than 15% in the year.

6. Sometimes we have difficult ……., but we usually sign a new contract in the end!

7. They have high…….compared to their competitors, but the equipment is very high quality.

8. Our main…… are hospitals, mostly in Europe and North America, but we have also entered the market is Asia.

III. Выберите правильный вариант:


a) The government has promised to boost the flagging ……

b) Dillon studied …… at Manchester University.



a) I am busy at the moment – I have a lot of ……

b) My brother has found a good ……as a sales manager.



a) We can show you how you can earn a higher rate of……

b) Calculate what …..of your income you spend on food.



a) An……is someone who leaves his country of origin to settle in another.

b) It is not easy being an illegal…..

Занесите свои ответы в таблицу:

a b a b a b a b


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