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Substantivized adjectives

Substantivized adjectives have acquired some or all of the characteristics of the noun, but their adjectival origin is still generally felt.

Substantivized adjectives are divided into wholly substantivized and partially substantivized adjectives.

Wholly substantivized adjectives have all the characteristics of nouns, namely the plural form, the genitive case; they are associated with articles, i. e. they have become nouns: a native, the natives, a native’s hut.

Some wholly substantivized adjectives have only the plural form: eatables, valuables, ancients, sweets, greens.

Partially substantivized adjectives acquire only some of the characteristics of the noun; they are used with the definite article. Partially substantivized adjectives denote a whole class: the rich, the poor, the unemployed. They may also denote abstract notions: the good, the evil, the beautiful, the singular, the plural, the future, the present, the past.

Substantivized adjectives denoting nationalities fall under wholly and partially substantivized adjectives.

Wholly substantivized adjectives are: a Russian Russians, a German Germans.

Partially substantivized adjectives are: the English, the French, the Chinese.

№9 Наречие.

The adverb is a part of speech which expresses some circumstances that attend an action or state, or points out some characteristic features of an action or a quality.

The function of the adverb is that of an adverbial modifier. An adverb may modify verbs (verbals), words of the category of state, adjectives, and adverbs.


Annette turned her neck lazily, touched one eyelash and said: “He amuses

Winifred.” (Galsworthy)

And glancing sidelong at his nephew he thought... (Galsworthy)

For a second they stood with hands hard clasped. (Galsworthy)

And now the morning grew so fair, and all things were so wide awake.


The man must have had diabolically acute hearing. (Wells)

Harris spoke quite kindly and sensibly about it. (Jerome)


§ 2.As to their structure adverbs are divided into:

(1) simple adverbs (long, enough, then, there, etc.);

(2) derivative adverbs (slowly, likewise, forward, headlong, etc.); (The most productive adverb-forming suffix is ‑ly. There are also some other suffixes: ‑wards, ‑ward; ‑long, ‑wise.)

(3) compound adverbs (anyhow, sometimes, nowhere, etc.);

(4) composite adverbs (at once, at last, etc.).


§ 3. Some adverbs have degrees of comparison.

(a) If the adverb is a word of one syllable, the comparative degree is formed by adding ‑er and the superlative by adding -est.


fast — faster — fastest

hard — harder — hardest


(b) Adverbs ending in ‑ly form the comparative by means of more and the superlative by means of most.


wisely — more wisely — most wisely

beautifully — more beautifully — most beautifully


(c) Some adverbs have irregular forms of comparison:


well — better — best

badly — worse — worst

much — more — most

little — less — least


§ 4. According to their meaning adverbs fall under several groups:

(1) adverbs of time (today, tomorrow, soon, etc.);

(2) adverbs of repetition or frequency (often, seldom, ever, never, sometimes, etc.);

(3) adverbs of place and direction (inside, outside, here, there, backward, upstairs, etc.);

(4) adverbs of cause and consequence (therefore, consequently, accordingly, etc.);

(5) adverbs of manner (kindly, quickly, hard, etc.);

(6) adverbs of degree, measure and quantity (very, enough, half, too, nearly, almost, much, little, hardly, rather, exceedingly, quite, once, twice, firstly, secondly, etc.).

Three groups of adverbs stand aside: interrogative, relative and conjunctive adverbs.

Interrogative adverbs (where, when, why, how) are used in special questions.

Conjunctive and relative adverbs are used to introduce subordinate clauses.1

Some adverbs are homonymous with prepositions, conjunctions2 and words of the category of state.3

№10 Модальные слова.

The modal wordsexpress the attitude of the speaker to the reality, possibility or probability, of the action he speaks about.


§ 2. According to their meaning modal words fall under the following main groups:

(1) words expressing certainty (certainly, surely, assuredly, of course, no doubt, apparently, undoubtedly, etc.);

(2) words expressing supposition(perhaps, maybe, possibly, probably, etc.);

(3) words showing whether the speaker considers the action he speaks about desirable or undesirable (happily unhappily; luckily unluckily; fortunately unfortunately).


§ 3. In the sentence modal words are used as parentheses.1Sometimes they are used as sentence-words.2


1 See Chapter XV, The Simple Sentence.

2 Modal words used as sentence-words are similar to the words yes and no expressing affirmation and negation, which are also sentence-words.


Certainly you’ll admit we could finish all this in a month. (Wilson)

“Will you allow me to detain you one moment,” said he. “Certainly,”replied

the unwelcome visitor. (Dickens)


§ 4. Most modal words have developed from adverbs, so very often there exists a formal identity between modal words and adverbs. For instance such modal words as certainly, surely, happily are homonymous with the adverbs certainly, surely, happily.

Such modal words as possibly, probably, indeed, also derived from adverbs, have no corresponding homonymous adverbs because the latter ceased to be used in Modern English.

Though formally identical with adverbs, modal words differ from them in meaning and syntactical function.


If he were not married as happilyas he was, might notsomething come of it?

(Dreiser) (ADVERB)

...she hauled me to the washstand, inflicted a merciless, but happilybrief

scrub on my face and hands with soap water, and a coarse towel... (Ch.

Bronte) (MODAL WORD)

Lamlein rose. “We have fulfilled our obligations,” he said pompously, and yet

not quite certainly.(Heym) (ADVERB)

Soames smiled. Certainly, uncle Jolyon had a way with him. (Galsworthy)


Slowly, surely, with the secret inner process that works the destruction of an

old tree, the poison of the wounds to his happiness, his will, his pride, had

corroded the comely edifice of his philosophy. (Galsworthy) (ADVERB)

Over the ridge she would find him. Surelyshe would find him over the ridge.

(Wells) (MODAL WORD)

№11 междометие

The interjection is a part of speech which expresses various emotions without naming them.


§ 2. According to their meaning interjections fall under two main groups, namely emotional interjections and imperative interjections.


1. Emotional interjections express the feelings of the speaker. They are: ah, oh, eh, bravo, alas, etc.


...A man jumped on top of the barricade and waving exuberantly shouted,

“Americans! Hurrah!”(Heym) (joy)

Alas!The white house was empty and there was a bill in the window “To let”.

(Dickens) (sorrow)

Psha!There’s no possibility of being witty without a little, ill nature.

(Sheridan) (contempt)

Oh,bother! I can’t see anyone now. Who is it? (Shaw) (indignation)

Dear me!” says Mr. Chillip meekly smiling with something shining in his

eyes. (Dickens) (surprise)


2. Imperative interjections show the will of the speaker or his order or appeal to the hearer. They are: here, hush, sh-sh, well, come, now, etc.


Here! I’ve had enough of this. I’m going. (Shaw) (protest)

“Upon my word I was not awake, sir,” replied Oliver earnestly. “I was not, indeed, sir.” “Tush,tush,my dear!” said the Jew abruptly resuming his old manner. (Dickens) (order)


§ 3. Interjections may be primary and secondary.

1. Primary interjections are not derived from other parts of speech. Most of them are simple words: ah, oh, eh, pooh, hum, fie, bravo, hush. Only a few primary interjections are composite: heigh-ho! hey-ho! holla-ho! gee-ho!

2. Secondary interjections are derived from other parts of speech. They are homonymous with the words they are derived from. They are: well, now, here, there, come, why, etc.

(Derivative interjections should not be confused with exclamation-words, such as nonsense, shame, good, etc.)

Derivative interjections may be simple: well, here, there, come, etc., and composite: dear me, confound it, hang it, etc.

Interjections are used as independent sentence-words or independent elements of the sentence.1


1 See Chapter XV, § 42.


T h e D a u g h t e r: Sixpence thrown away! Really mamma, you might have

spared Freddy that.

T h e G e n t l e m a n: Phew! (Shaw)

Well, I don’t like those mysterious little pleasure trips that he is so fond of

taking. (Voynich)


N о t e. — Formulas of courtesy, greetings, etc. should not be regarded as

interjections. Thus, good-bye, thank you are not interjections because they do

not express emotion or will.

№12 Местоимение.

The pronoun is a part of speech which points out objects and their qualities without naming them.


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