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The Absolute Genitive


1. The Absolute Genitive may be used anaphorically.


Mrs. Moss’s face bore a faded resemblance to her brother’s.(Eliot)

The face Michael drew began by being Victorine’sand ended by being



2. The Absolute Genitive may have local meaning: the stationer’s, the baker’s, the tobacconist’s, my uncle’s, etc.


On her way home she usually bought a slice of honey-cake at the baker’s.


“My dear,” said the lace collar she secured from Partridge’s,“I fit you

beautifully.” (Dreiser)


The Absolute Genitive may be introduced by the preposition of.

She is a relation of the Colonel’s. (Austen)



№6 зависимый(подчиненный) родительный падеж

A. The Dependent Genitive.


1. The chief meaning of the genitive case is that of possession:


...a young man and a girl came out of the solicitor’soffice. (Braine)

He stayed at Fanny’sflat. (Aldington)


2. Very close to the meaning of possession is that of a part to a whole:


A faint smile had come on Victorine’sface — she was adding up the money

she might earn. (Galsworthy)

His sister’seyes fixed on him with a certain astonishment, obliged him at last

to look at Fleur. (Galsworthy)


3. The Dependent Genitive may express the doer of an action (the so-called subjective genitive) or show that some person is the object of the action (the so-called objective genitive):


It was Tom’sstep, then, that Maggie heard on the steps. (Eliot)

Gwendolen’sreception in the neighbourhood fulfilled her uncle’s

expectations. (Eliot)


4. The noun in the genitive case may denote qualitative relations:


He looked ever so much smarter in his new officer’sclothes with the little

blue chevron... (Aldington)


The use of the genitive case of nouns denoting inanimate things and abstract notions is rather limited.

The genitive case of nouns denoting inanimate things may denote therelations between a part and the whole.


...the sudden shaking of an aspen’sleaves in the puffs of breeze that rose

along the river... (Galsworthy)

He stepped on the truck’srunning board hanging on with his left arm. (Heym)


The genitive case of nouns expressing time, space and weight is widely used.


From the depot he was sent to the officers’ training camp with two days’

leave. (Aldington)

They both quite took to him again and during his month’sleave gave him a

good time. (Aldington)

There is a remnant still of the last year’s golden clusters... (Eliot)

The three of us had had dinner, and walked down past the theatre to the

river’sedge. (Snow)

№7 имя прилагательное. Степени сравнения.

The adjective is a word expressing aquality of asubstance.


§ 2. The adjective has the following morphological characteristics:

Most adjectives have degrees of comparison:the comparativedegree and the superlativedegree.1


1 Some adjectives have no degrees of comparison (see § 7).


The comparative degreedenotes a higher degree of a quality.


She is tallerthan her sister.

My box is smallerthan hers.


The superlative degreedenotes the highest degree of a quality.


She is the tallestof the three sisters.

Her box is the smallestof all our boxes.


(The noun modified by an adjective in the superlative degree has the definite article because the superlative degree of the adjective always implies limitation.)

Adjectives form their degrees of comparison in the following way:

(a) by the inflexion ‑er, ‑est (synthetical way);

(b) by placing more and most before the adjective (analytical way).

Monosyllabic adjectives usually form their comparatives and superlatives in the first way, and polysyllabic adjectives in the second way.

The following polysyllabic adjectives, however, generally form their comparative and superlative degrees inflexionally:

1. Adjectives of two syllables which end in ‑y, ‑ow, -er, ‑le.


happy happier (the) happiest
narrow narrower (the) narrowest
clever cleverer (the) cleverest
simple simpler (the) simplest


2. Adjectives of two syllables which have the stress on the last syllable:


complete completer (the) completest
concise conciser (the) concisest


Some adjectives have irregular forms of degrees of comparison, e. g.:


good better (the) best
bad worse (the) worst
many, much more (the) most
little less (the) least
far {farther further (the ){farthest furthest
old {older elder (the){oldest eldest


Spelling rules.

1. If the adjective ends in a consonant preceded by a stressed short vowel the consonant is doubled before ‑er, ‑est.


sad sadder (the) saddest
big bigger (the) biggest


2. If the adjective ends in ‑y preceded by a consonant, у is changed into i before ‑er and ‑est.


busy busier (the) busiest
happy happier (the) happiest


3. If the adjective ends in ‑e the e is dropped before ‑er and ‑est.


brave braver (the) bravest
tine finer (the) finest


№8имя прилагательное. Качественное, субстантивированное, относительное.


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