1. Interrogative pronouns are used in inquiry, to form special questions. They are: who, whose, what, which.
The interrogative pronoun who has the category of case: the nominative case is who, the objective case whom.
Who refers to human beings:
Slipping her hand under his arm, she said: “Who was that?” “He picked up
my handkerchief. We talked about pictures.” (Galsworthy)
What when not attributive usually refers to things but it may be applied to persons when one inquires about their occupation.
“What are you looking for, Tess?” the doctor called. “Hairpins,” she replied...
“What was he?” “A painter.” (Galsworthy)
Which has a selective meaning: it corresponds to the Russian ‘который из’ (an individual of the group). It may refer to persons and things.
The boys clasped each other suddenly in an agony of fright. “Which of us
does he mean?” gasped Huckleberry. (Twain)
Which side of the bed do you like, Mum? (Galsworthy)
The questions Who is he? What is he? Which is he? differ in their meaning. The first question inquires about the name or parentage of some person. The second question inquires about the occupation of the person spoken about. The third question inquires about some particular person out of a definite group of persons.
2. In the sentence interrogative pronouns may have different functions — those of subject, predicative, object, and attribute:
Who, do you think, has been to see you, Dad? She couldn’t wait! Guess.
“What’s been happening, then?” he said sharply. (Eliot) (SUBJECT)
“No, who’s he?” “Oh, he’s a Polish Jew.” (Aldington) (PREDICATIVE)
“What are you, Mr. Mont, if I may ask?” “I, sir? I was going to be a painter.”
“What was her father?” “Heron was his name, a Professor, so they tell me.”
“He says he’s married,” said Winifred. “Whom to, for goodness’ sake?”
“Who do you mean?” I said. (Dn Maurier) (OBJECT)1
1 There is a tendency in Modern English to use who, instead of whom, as an object:
Z. If it doesn’t matter who anybody marries, then it doesn’t matter who I
marry and it doesn’t matter who you marry.
A. Whom, not who.
Z. Oh, speak English: you’re not on the telephone now. (Shaw)
“What did you see in Clensofantrim?” “Nothing but beauty, darling.”
“What sort of a quarrel?” he heard Fleur say. (Galsworthy) (ATTRIBUTE)
Whosepain can have been like mine? Whoseinjury is like mine? (Eliot)
Whichday is it that Dorloote Mill is to be sold? (Eliot) (ATTRIBUTE)
1.Relative pronouns (who, whose, which, that, as) not only point back to a noun or a pronoun mentioned before but also have conjunctive power. They introduce attributive clauses. The word they refer to is called their antecedent. It may be a noun or a pronoun.
Who is used in reference to human beings or animals.
Jolyon bit his lips; he whohad always hated rows almost welcomed the
thought of one now. (Galsworthy)
...in his voice was a strange note of fear that frightened the animal, whohad
never known the man speak in such way before. (London)
Whose is mainly used in reference to human beings or animals butit may be applied to things.
Then there was the proud Rychie Korbes, whosefather, Mynheer van Korbes,
was one of the leading men of Amsterdam. (Dodge)
Again he (Soames) looked at her (Irene), huddled like a bird that is shot and
dying, whosepoor breast you see panting as the air is taken from it, whose
poor eyes look at you who have shot it, with a slow, soft, unseeing look...
...he (superintendent) wore a stiff standing-collar whoseupper edge almost
reached his ears, and whosesharp points curved forward abreast the corners
of his mouth... (Twain)
Which is used in reference to things and animals.
Here was her own style — a bed whichdid not look like one and many
They strove to steal a dog — the fattest, whichwas very thin — but I shoved
my pistol in their faces and told them begone. (London)
That is mainly used in reference to animals and things. It may also be used in reference to human beings.
This... gave him much the same feeling a man has when a dog thathe owns
wriggles and looks at him. (Galsworthy)
On one side was a low wall thatseparated it from the street. (London)
In the factory quarter, doors were opening everywhere, and he was soon one
of a multitude thatpressed onward through the dark. (London)
As usually introduces attributive clauses when the demonstrative pronoun such is used in the principal clause (it is a rare case when’as is used without such in the principal clause).
As may refer to living beings and things.
...perhaps the books were right and there were many such asshe (Ruth) in the
upper walks of life. (London)
His mother was a poor peasant woman, too poor even to think of such a thing
asbuying skates for her little ones. (Dodge)
For nobody’s ever heard me say as it wasn’t lucky for my children to have
aunts and uncles ascan live independent. (Eliot)
...I went into Snow Park. It wasn’t asone expects a municipal park to be...
2. Relative pronouns can also refer to a clause (see Chapter XVII, The Complex Sentence, § 8).
Relative pronouns always perform some syntactical function in the clause they introduce.
Gemma, there’s a man downstairs whowants to see you. (Vovnich)
She flashed a look at him thatwas more anger than appeal. (London)
...then discussion assumed that random volubility whichsoftens a decision
already forced on one. (Galsworthy) (SUBJECT)
I think I have taken nothing thatyou or your people have given me.
Families often think it due to themselves to turn their back on newcomers,
whomthey may not think quite enough for them. (Shaw) (OBJECT)
It pleased Denny to exert the full force of his irony upon the work whichthey
were doing. (Cronin) (OBJECT)
1. Conjunctive pronouns (who, what, whose, which) not only point back to some person or thing mentioned before but also have conjunctive power, introducing subordinate clauses (subject clauses, object clauses, predicative clauses).1
1 See Chapter XVII, The Complex Sentence.
WhatJune had taken for personal interest was only the impersonal excitement
of every Forsyte... (Galsworthy) (SUBJECT CLAUSE)
What you want, in fact, is a first-rate man for a fourth-rate fee, and that’s
exactly whatyou’ve got! (Galsworthy) (PREDICATIVE CLAUSE)
I don’t want to hear whatyou’ve come for. (Galsworthy) (OBJECT
2. In the clause they introduce they perform different functions, those of subject, predicative, attribute, object.
What had made her yield he could never make out; and from Mrs. Heron, a
woman of some diplomatic talent, he learnt nothing. (Galsworthy)
Erik realized with a sinking sensation that Haviland didn’t know who he was.
I’ve spent a lot of time in the chart-room now, and I’m on the edge of
knowing my way about, what charts I want to refer to, what coasts I want to
explore. (London) (ATTRIBUTE)
WhatSavina could no longer do for him, he did himself, and brutally brushed
aside all other interests except her. (Wilson) (OBJECT)
The defining pronouns are: all, each, every, everybody, everyone, everything, either, both, other, another.
1. All is a generalizing pronoun, it takes a group of things or persons as a whole.
All may be used as subject, predicative, object, and attribute.
...when allis said and done... (London) (SUBJECT)
He just loved me, that is all.(London) (PREDICATIVE)
And Martin forgot allabout it. (London) (OBJECT)
...if allthe doors are closed... (London) (ATTRIBUTE)
2. Both points out two persons, things or notions mentioned before.
“But there is more to be said,” he continued, after a pause painful to both.
You can study French, or you can study German, or cut them both out and
study Esperanto... (London)
The pronoun both may be used as subject, object, and attribute.
Bothseemed to implore something to shelter them from reality. (Hardy)
The light, admitted by windows at both ends, was unfortunately not Chinese.
When preceded by a preposition both may be used as a prepositional indirect object.
He invariably paid the way for both,and it was through him that Martin
learned the refinement of food. (London)
3. Each, every, everybody, everyone, everything.
Each and every refer to all the members of the group of persons, things, or notions mentioned before and taken one by one. When used as subject, each etc. require a verb in the singular.
Each may be used as subject, object, and attribute.
The train coming in a minute later, the two brothers parted and entered their
respective compartments. Eachfelt aggrieved that the other had not modified
his habits to secure his society a little longer. (Galsworthy) (SUBJECT)
He paid a dollar each. (London) (OBJECT)
It (a blackbird) started singing as I looked out of the window, ending each
phrase abruptly as if jout of breath, a curiously amateur effect. (Braine)
When preceded by a preposition each may be used as a prepositional indirect object:
They began to deal swiftly with the cocoa tins, slipping a stick of dynamite in
Every is used only as an attribute:
This is something more than genius. It is true, every line of it. (London)
Everybody, everyone refer to all the members of the group of persons mentioned before or taken one by one.
The pronouns everybody, everyone have two cases: the commoncase and the genitive case.
The common case may be used as subject and object.
You walked into the waiting-room, into a great buzz of conversation, and
there was everybody; you knew almost everybody. (Mansfield) (SUBJECT,
The genitive case of the pronouns everyone and everybody is used as an attribute.
...he almost forgot the nearly intolerable discomfort of his new clothes in the
entirely intolerable discomfort of being set up as a target for everybody’s
gaze and everybody’s laudations. (Twain)
When preceded by a preposition everyone and everybody may be used as a prepositional indirect object.
How know? And without knowing how give such pain to everyone?
Everything may be applied to things, animals and abstract notions. In the sentence it is used as subject, predicative, and object.
No one will see us. Pull down that veil and everything will be all right.
Of course, class is everything, really. (Galsworthy) (PREDICATIVE)
He was not long in assuming that Brissenden knew everything. (London)
4. Either has two meanings: (a) each of the two, (b) one or the other.
The trail wasn’t three feet wide on the crest, and on either side the ridge fell
away in precipices hundreds of feet deep. (London)
Then he remembered the underwriters and the owners, the two masters a
captain must serve, either of which could and would break him and whose
interests were diametrically opposed. (London)
In the sentence either is usually used as attribute or part of the subject (see the above examples).
5. Other, another. Other denotes some object different from the one mentioned before.
Other has two numbers: singular — other; plural — others. It has two cases: the common case and the genitive case (other’s, others’).
He walked at the other’s heels with a swing to his shoulders and his legs
spread unwittingly... (London)
In the sentence it is used as subject, object, and attribute.
After tea the others went off to bathe... (Mansfield) (SUBJECT)
When he brought his suitcase down into the hall, Isabel left the others and
went over to him. (Mansfield) (OBJECT)
But the circumstance was sufficient to lead him to select Tess in preference to
the other pretty milkmaids. (Hardy) (ATTRIBUTE)
When preceded by a preposition it may be used as a prepositional indirect object:
You are not fair to the others. (Voynich)
Another has two meanings: (1) ‘a different one’, (2) ‘an additional one’.
He has learnt sheep-farming at another place, and he’s now mastering dairy
Yes, thought Soames, another year of London and that sort of life, and she’ll
be spoiled. (Galsworthy)
Another may be used as subject, object, and attribute.
The lantern hanging at her wagon had gone out but another was shining in
her face much brighter than her own had been. (Hardy) (SUBJECT)
Often among the women he met, he would see now one, now another,
looking at him, appraising him, selecting him. (London) (OBJECT)
Now I won’t say another word. I am overwhelmed, crushed. (London)
Indefinite pronouns point out some person or thing indefinitely. The indefinite pronouns are some, any, somebody, anybody, someone, anyone, something, anything, one.
The pronouns somebody, anybody, someone, anyone, one have two cases: the common case and the genitive case.
1. Some is chiefly used in affirmative sentences while any is used in negative and interrogative sentences and. in conditional clauses.
We spread down some wide blankets. (O. Henry)
But his chief trouble was that he did not know any editors or writers.
Do you see any sign of his appreciating beauty? (Galsworthy)
If you have any new books, show them to me please.
When used with nouns of material some and any have the meaning of indefinite quantity.
Now run along and get some candy, and don’t forget to give some to your brothers and sisters. (London)
Some, not any, is used in special and general questions expressing some request or proposal.
“Do you want some water?” “No, I don’t want any water.” (Maltz)
Some may have the meaning of ‘certain’ (некоторые) before a noun in the plural.
You have some queer customers. Do you like this life? (Galsworthy)
Any may be used in affirmative sentences with the meaning of ‘every’ (любой).
Above a square-domed forehead he saw a mop of brown hair... nut-brown,
with a wave to it and hints of curls that were a delight to any woman...
Somebody, someone, something are chiefly used in affirmative sentences.
He wanted someone young, you know a dark Spanish type... (Mansfield)
I want to say something. (Galsworthy)
Anybody, anyone, anything are used in negative and interrogative sentences and in conditional clauses.
I don’t want anything. (Voynich)
Is there anything between him and Annette? (Galsworthy)
If anyone had asked him if he wanted to own her soul, the question would
have seemed to him both ridiculous and sentimental. (Galsworthy)
If Erik was ever to do anything of importance he would have to find a third
Somebody, someone, something are used in special and general questions if they express some request or proposal.
Will someone help me?
Anyone, anybody, anything may be used in affirmative sentences. Anyone, anybody are used with the meaning of ‘everyone’ (любой); anything is used with the meaning of ‘everything’ (что угодно).
“You’ve no business to say such a thing!” she exclaimed. “Why not?
Anybody can see it.” (Galsworthy)
There is a limit to what anyone can bear. (Voynich)
...she sank in spirit inwardly and fluttered feebly at the heart as she thought of
entering anyone of these mighty concerns and asking for something to do —
something that she could do — anything. (Dreiser)
2. The indefinite pronouns some and any may be used as subject, object and attribute.
Some say the world will end in fire.
Some say in ice. (Frost) (SUBJECT)
“I watch the fire — and the boiling and the roasting — ” “When there is any,”
says Mr. George, with great expression. (Dickens) (SUBJECT)
...and his attention slid at once from such finality to the dust motes in the
bluish sunlight coming in. Thrusting his hand up he tried to catch some.
Where is his home? He didn’t have any. (Maltz) (OBJECT)
Are there any real Indians in the woods? (0. Henry) (ATTRIBUTE)
Someone, anyone, somebody, anybody, something, anything may be used as subject, predicative, or object. When used as a subject they require a verb in the singular.
In the next house someone was playing over and over again “La donna è
mobile” on an untuned piano. (Galsworthy) (SUBJECT)
...What he likes is anything except art. (Aldington) (PREDICATIVE)
And not merely did he not know any writers, but he did not know anybody
who had ever attempted to write. (London) (OBJECT)
The genitive case of the pronouns somebody, someone! anybody, anyone is used as an attribute:
...he could pull his cap down over his eyes and screen himself behind
someone’s shoulder. (London)
“It’s anybody’s right,” Martin heard somebody saying. (London)
...I looked up; I was in somebody’s arms. (Shaw)
When preceded by a preposition the pronouns somebody, someone, something, anybody, anyone, anything may be used as prepositional indirect objects.
The girl doesn’t belong to anybody — is no use to anybody but me. (Shaw)
Such a purse had never been carried by any one attentive to her. (Dreiser)
So, though he wasn’t very successful at anything, he got along all right.
3. The indefinite-personal pronoun one is often used in the sense of any person or every person.
New York presents so many temptations for one to run into extravagance. (O.
The indefinite pronoun one is often used in a general sense.
...Only one with constitution of iron could have held himself down, as Martin
The pronoun one may be used in the genitive case:
I know exactly what it feels like to be held down on one’s back. (Galsworthy)
One may be used as a word-substitute:
I was looking at them, and also at intervals examining the teachers — none of
whom precisely pleased me; for the stout one was a little coarse, the dark one
not a little fierce. (Ch. Bronte)
As a word-substitute one may be used in the plural:
Some of the gentlemen were gone to the stables; the younger ones, together
with the younger ladies, were playing billiards in the billiard room. (Ch.
Most of the indefinite pronouns correspond to negative pronouns: some — no, none; something — nothing, none; somebody, someone — nobody, no one, none.
Some defining pronouns also correspond to negative pronouns: everything — nothing; all, everybody, every, each — no, none, nobody; both, either — neither.
1. The negative pronoun no is used only before a noun as its attribute.
No dreams were possible in Dufton, where the snow seemed to turn black
almost before it hit the ground. (Braine)
No Forsyte can stand it for a minute. (Galsworthy)
The negative pronoun none may be applied both to human beings and things.
None of us — none of us can hold on for ever! (Galsworthy)
... he took the letters from the gilt wire cage into which they had been thrust
through the slit in the door. None from Irene. (Galsworthy)
It can be used as subject or object.
In this he would make little fires, and cook the birds he had not shot with his
gun, hunting in the coppice and fields, or the fish he did not catch in the pond
because there were none. (Galsworthy) (SUBJECT)
...besides, it required woods and animals, of which he had none in his nursery
except his two cats... (Galsworthy) (OBJECT)
2. The negative pronouns nobody, no one refer to human beings. They correspond to the indefinite pronouns somebody, someone and to the defining pronouns all, every, each, everybody.
The negative pronoun nobody may be used in the genitive case: nobody’s.
The negative pronouns nobody and no one are mostly used as subjects and objects.
Nobody seemed to know him well. (Galsworthy) (SUBJECT)
He remembered the days of his desperate starvation when no one invited him
to dinner. (London) (SUBJECT)
I told you once that I have no one in the world but you. (Voynich) (OBJECT)
We’d have nobody to fight the war. (Heym) (OBJECT)
The pronoun nobody in the genitive case is used as an attribute.
Now Mr. Pullet never rode anything taller than a low pony, and was the least
predatory of men, considering fire-arms dangerous, as apt to go off
themselves by nobody’s particular desire. (Eliot)
The pronouns nobody, no one preceded by a preposition are used as prepositional indirect objects.
Among all the crowd who came and went here, there and everywhere, she
cared for nobody. (Galsworthy)
3. The negative pronoun nothing refers to things. It is opposite to the indefinite pronoun something and to the defining pronoun everything.
And nothing of vital importance had happened after that till the year turned.
Nothing may be used as subject, predicative, or object.
There is nothing to worry about. (Galsworthy) (SUBJECT)
“Now, look here, Marian, this is nothing but nonsense,” Martin began.
...she brought nothing with her but the feeling of adventure. (Galsworthy)
When preceded by a preposition nothing may be used as a prepositional indirect object:
On that train he thought of nothing but Lilly. (Wilson)
The negative pronoun neither is opposite to the defining pronouns either, both.
Neither of them answered; but their faces seemed to him as if contemptuous.
In the sentence it may be used as subject, object, and attribute.
Neither was wise enough to be sure of the working of the mind of the other.
I like neither of them. (OBJECT)
We approved neither plan. (ATTRIBUTE)
The negative pronouns nobody, no one, nothing are singular in meaning and when they are used as the subject of the sentence they require a verb in the singular (see the above examples).
№13 слова категории состояния
The words of the category of state denote the temporary stateor conditionof persons or things.
But Johnny and Paddy were asleep,the rose-red glow had paled, bats were
flying, and still the bathers had not returned. (Mansfield)
Crearer said, “I’m afraid,General, we have to rely on the appeal of the
§ 2. As regards formthe words of the category of state have the prefix a-: ablaze, afire, aflame, afoot, afraid, asleep, awake, etc.
§ 3. They are mainly used in the function of a predicative.
“He is awake!”Sally cried. (Saxton)
That was all right in the daytime, but while Alice was putting her to bed she
grew suddenly afraid.(Mansfield)
When he got into bed, he was sure he’d never fall asleep,and yet he was dog-
...but at the first double knock every window in the street became alivewith
female heads. (Dickens)
Words of the category of state may be used as objective predicatives.
She was saying that she intended to leave him entirely aloneagain. (Wilson)
Words of the category of state may be sometimes used as attributes. But unlike adjectives they cannot be placed before the words they modify. As attributes they may be only used in post-position:
The father and mother dolls, who sprawled very stiff as though they had
fainted in the drawing-room, and their two little children asleepupstairs were
really too big for the doll’s house. (Mansfield)
§ 4. Words of the category of state can be modified by adverbs of degree:
Sally, who had been half asleepwith her head on Eddie’s lap, woke up and
began chanting. (Saxton)
Mrs. Gamp’s curtains were drawn close, and Mrs. Gamp was fast asleep.
He immediately came fully awake.(Heym)
Words of the category of state may take prepositional indirect objects.
“You were afraid of the war?”she asked compassionately. (Heym)
...but at the first double knock every window in the street became alive with
“Merry,” cried that more prudent damsel, “really I am ashamed of you.”
The numeral is a part of speech which indicates numberorthe orderof persons and things in a series.
Accordingly numerals are divided into cardinals(cardinal numerals) and ordinals(ordinal numerals).
Cardinal numerals indicate exact number, they are used in counting. As to their structure, the cardinal numerals from 1 to 12 and 100, 1000, 1,000,000 are simple words (one, two, three, etc., hundred, thousand, million); those from 13 to 19 are derivatives with the suffix ‑teen (thirteen, fourteen, etc.); the cardinal numerals indicating tens are formed by means of the suffix ‑ty (twenty, thirty, etc.). The numerals from 21 to 29, from 31 to 39, etc. are composite: twenty-two, thirty-five, etc.
N o t e 1. — Twenty-two, thirty-five, etc. are spelt with a hyphen.
N o t e 2. — In two hundred and twenty-three, four hundred and sixteen etc.
there must be the word and after the word hundred.
Such cardinal numerals as hundred, thousand, million may be used with articles (a hundred, a thousand, a million); they may be substantivized and used in the plural (hundreds, thousands, millions). When used after other numerals they do not take ‑s (two hundred times, thirty thousand years etc.). The word million may be used with or without ‑s (two million, two millions). When the word million is followed by some other cardinal numeral only the first variant is possible: two million five hundred inhabitants.
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