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Past Forms (формы прошедшего времени)




 

Past Simple Past Continuous Past Perfect Past Perfect Cont.
  • past actions which
happened one after the other (действия в прошлом, происходящие одно за другим) She bought a ticket, booked a room in the hotel and left for Moscow.
  • action in the middle of happening at a stated past time
(действие, происходящее в определенный момент речи) He was doing sightseeing at 4.30 yesterday.  
  • past action which occurred before another action or before a stated past time
(действие, которое произошло раньше другого действия в прошлом или указанного момента в прошлом)   The train had left by the time I got to the railway station.
  • action continuing over a period up to a specific time in the past
(действие, продолжающееся до определенного момента в прошлом)   She had been waiting for the train for 3 hours before it arrived.
  • past habit or state
(привычное в прошлом действие или состояние)   He used to travel a lot.
  • past action in progress interrupted by another past action. The longer action is in the Past Continuous, the shorter action is in the Past Simple.
(длительное действие в прошлом, прерываемое другим кратким действием)   While I was watching TV, my mother came.
  • completed past action which had visible results in the past
(законченное действие в прошлом, имеющее видимые результаты в прошлом)   She was happy because she had passed the exam.
  • past action of certain duration which had visible results in the past
(продолжительное действие в прошлом, имеющее видимый результат к моменту действия в прошлом)     They were red because they had been sunbathing
  • complete action or event which happened at a stated past time
(законченное действие или событие, котороепроизошло в указанный период времени) He left 2 hours ago. (When? 2 hours ago.)

Time expressions (слова-индикаторы) used with:

 

Past Simple yesterday, last week etc, (how long) ago, then, just now, when, in 1967 etc
Past Continuous while, when, as etc  
Past Perfect for, since, already, after, just, never, yet, before, by, by the time etc
Past Perfect Cont. for, since  

СОГЛАСОВАНИЕ ВРЕМЕН

He says (that) she lives in Moscow. Он говорит, что она живет в Москве.

He says(that) she lived in Moscow. Он говорит, что она жила в Москве.

He says (that) she will live in Moscow. Он говорит, что она будет жить в Москве.

He said (that) she lived in Moscow. Он говорил, что она живет в Москве.

He said (that) she had lived in Moscow. Он говорил, что она жила в Москве.

He said (that) she would live in Moscow. Он говорил, что она будет жить в Москве.

 

 

Упражнение 19

Поставьте пропущенный глагол в соответствующей форме.



1. He knew that they (be) to Oxford last year.

2. When they arrived at the airport, the plane (already leave).

3. They were discussing their plans for the weekend, when she (enter).

4. The announcer informed that the train (delay) for five minutes.

5. She answered that they (study) in London for 4 months.

6. When we (be) in Cambridge, we were taught RP (Received Pronunciation).

7. He knows that he (be) a prominent lawyer in future.

8. She said that she (visit) the British Museum by all means.

9. The guide told us that the Parliament (rebuild) many times.

10. The representative of the International Office explained that overseas students (accommodate) in the nearest hall of residence.

11. The guide told us Piccadilly Circus (be) a round, big area in central London, where several streets (join) together

 

 

Упражнение 20

Переведите предложения, используя правила согласования времён.

1. Она надеялась, что в следующем году поедет в Великобританию.

2. Джин спросила, что я буду делать в выходные.

3. Их сестра пообещала, что придет к нам в гости на следующей неделе.

4. Моя двоюродная сестра попросила забронировать номер в гостинице.

5. Я хотела выяснить, доставили ли мой багаж.

6. Турагент заверил, что билеты уже куплены.

7. Мой свёкор позвонил и сказал, что погода замечательная и что он сейчас загорает.

8. Мистер Блейк сказал, что уже упаковал чемодан.

9. Её сноха волновалась, потому что не знала, понравятся ли её подарки родственникам.

10. Энн сказала, что наш рейс уже объявили. Поторопись!

 

Упражнение 21

Поставьте глаголы в соответствующей форме.

1. He (arrive) in London 2 days ago.

2. We (take) a taxi and (go) to the railway station.

3. Oxford University (establish) in the13th century.

4. While we (go) sightseeing, my friend (take) pictures of places of interest.

5. While Victoria (be) the queen, the UK (become) one of the richest and most powerful countries

in the world.

6. He (inform) us that she (already leave) from Victoria Station.

7. The guide (add) that it (be) famous for being very busy, for its bright advertising signs made of

neon lights, and for the well-known statue of Eros in its center.

8. They (be tired) because they (have) a three-day excursion to London.

9. The well-known fact about Henry VIII (be) that he (have) six wives.

10. There is a joke that Henry VIII (use to) throw chicken legs over his shoulder after he (eat) the

meat off them.

 

Упражнение 22

Выберите правильный индикатор.

1. _____ we had an awful journey-there was heavy snow and we broke our skies.

a) tomorrow b) this day c) last winter

2. My son had a lovely wedding-trip ____- the weather was fine and the hotel was fantastic.

a) a year ago b) for two days c) just

3. She told him that her husband had been away on a business trip in Japan _____.

a) during this week b) the previous week c) this week

4. A famous actor left Hollywood for a tour of Europe_____.

a) not long ago b) today c) already

5. _____ the voyage to Australia was long and very dangerous.

a) nowadays b) in those days c) these days

6. We used to travel to London_____.

a) every week b) not long ago c) now

7. _____ I was watching that film, my friend rang me up.

a) nowadays b) in those days c) while

 

Упражнение 23

Переведите предложения c английского язык на русский язык.

1. Yesterday we had an excursion to London.

2. We had bought coach tickets two days before that trip.

3. While we were going to London the guide was telling us about the history of England, its

monarchs, customs and traditions.

4. Our guide told us Queen Victoria was one of the most esteemed queens of England,

because that country had been a powerful empire during her rule.

5. We visited a lot of museums, memorials and parks in London during our last year tour.

6. One of the most interesting museums of London was and is Madame Tussaud’s museum

of waxworks.

7. We were posing for pictures much while we were visiting Windsor Castle.

8. The guide told us that Trafalgar Square was built in the honour of Admiral Nelson who

was killed in the Battle of Trafalgar.

9. We were told that the British Museum contained a large and important collection of

ancient art, writings, coins and drawings.

10. We were very tired because there had been only walk excursions.

Упражнение 24

Найдите ошибку в предложениях.

1. The Beatles is a British popular music group whomake their first record in 1962 and became the most famous and successful group ever.

2. They hasa great influence on the development of popular music.

3. When theyhave separated in 1970, each member of the group continued to make music.

4. Football hooligans are less of a problem in the UK than they had been in the past, because

football clubs have been quite successful at preventing hooliganism.

5. Guy Fawkes Day is celebrated on the 5th of November in memory of the time when Guy Fawkes

had tried to destroy the English Parliament in London in 1605.

6. Lady Di is originally Lady Diana Spencer and she married Prince Charles in 1981.

7. Eventually their marriage has failedand they got a divorce in 1996.

8. She knew wearing fashionable, expensive clothes, but she was also known as a caring person

who worked actively for many different charity organizations.

9. Empire State Building has been built in 1931, and for many years it was the highest building in

the world.

10. The guide told the tourists that a Statue of Eros at Piccadilly in central London has been one of

the best-known sights in London.

 

Future Forms(формы будущего времени)

Future Simple Future Continuous Future Perfect Be Going To
  • decision taken at the moment of speaking (on- the-spot decisions)
(решение, принятое в момент речи)   Since I have a headache I’ll take some medicine.  
  • action in progress at a stated future time
    (действие, которое намереваются произвести в указанный момент в будущем) He'll be sunbathing at the seaside this time next week.  
  • action which will be finished before a stated future time
(длительное действие, которое будет законченно к определенному моменту в будущем) She will have passed all her exams by the end of June.    
  • action intended to be performed in the near future
    (действие, которое намереваются произвести в ближайшем будущем) She's going to visit her friends at the weekend.  
  • hopes, fears, threats, offers, promises, warnings, predictions, requests, comments etc
(надежды, просьбы опасения, угрозы, предложения, обещания, предупреждения, предсказания) I'm afraid you’ll be a little cold.
  • action which is the result of a routine (instead of Present Cont.)
(запланированное действие, которое является результатом повседневной деятельности)     I'll be writing letters tomorrow (I’m a secretary).  
  • planned action or intention
(запланированное действие или намерение)     Now that they've passed all their exams, they are going to have a rest at the seaside.  
  • action or prediction which may (not) happen in the future
(действие или предсказание, которое может произойти в будущем) She'll probably go to the beach.
  • (predict/on) or actions which we cannot control and will inevitably happen
(Неизбежные действия или события, которые мы не можем контролировать) Sally will be twenty next year.
  • when we ask politely about people's arrangements to see if they can do smth for us or because we want to offer to do smth for them
(вежливый вопрос о планах других людей, когда мы хотим попросить их сделать что-то для нас) Will you be going to the post office? Can you post a letter for me?  
Future Perfect Cont. · duration of an action up to a certain time in the future.   (продолжительное действие, длящееся вплоть до определенного момента в будущем)   By the bus arrival she will have been going shopping for 5 hours!
  • evidence that something will definitely happen in the near future
  (есть все предпосылки и доказательства того, что действие наверняка произойдет в ближайшем будущем)   Helen is going to have a baby. Look out! You are going to fall.  
  • action we are not sure about or haven't decided to do yet
(будущее действие, в совершении которого мы не уверены) She'll probably go to Paris. (not sure yet)
   
  • action we have already decided to do in the near future
(действие, которое мы уже решили произвести в ближайшем будущем) He's going to fly to London next week.

`

Time expressions (слова индикаторы) used with:

Will/Be Going To Future Cont tomorrow, tonight, next week/month, in two/three etc days, the day after tomorrow, soon, in a week/month etc
Future Perfect before, by, by then, by the time, until (is used only in negative sentences with this tense)
Fut. Pert. Cont. By for e.g. By next year he will have been working here for two years.

 

Упражнение 25

Поставьте глагол в соответствующей форме.

1. I like this idea! We (go) to London!

2. Hurry up! We (go) to miss the train!

3. Just imagine, they (study) in Great Britain for four months!

4. We (probably take) a trip to Scotland this weekend.

5. I (go) to visit the library tomorrow.

6. The train (leave) at 12.10 and arrives at 14.30.

7. She (take) her exam by the next week.

8. By the end of this term we (study) in Oxford for four years.

9. We (buy) tickets. We (leave) for London tomorrow.

10. The students (do sightseeing) this time tomorrow.

 

Упражнение 26

Добавьте необходимое слово-индикатор (возможно несколько вариантов).

1. I'll be flying over the ocean____.

2. She is going to apply the documents for the programme _____.

3. I' ll be back home _____.

4. By the time of departure we will have been waiting for the plane _____.

5. She won't have gone to Britain _____ September.

6. She will have come back _____ January.

7. The students will be going sightseeing _____ the weekend.

8. They will _____ go to Scotland, but they are not sure.

9. I'll have left for London ______ this time tomorrow.

10. I will call you _____.

 

Упражнение 27

Исправьте ошибки в предложениях.

1. It's settled! We go to London tomorrow!

2. I'll take pictures of tourist attractions this time tomorrow.

3. Don't worry. I have been helping you.

4. I hope somebody will have met us at the airport.

5. The plane will take off by then.

6. She will have passed all her exams until February.

7. The students will study English for eight years by the next term.

8. We will be waiting for two hours by the departure time.

9. The students will read books in the library the whole evening tomorrow.

10. Look out! You will fall!

 

Упражнение 28

Переведите предложения.

1. Они будут делать своё домашнее задание завтра.

2. Я не смогу пойти с тобой. Я буду делать домашнее задание.

3. Он сделает уроки к 8 часам.

4. Мы будем делать уроки до твоего прихода.

5. Она собирается делать уроки вечером.

6. Том уезжает завтра в Рим.

7. Осторожно! Ты вот-вот упадешь!

8. Поезд отправляется в 7 часов.

9. Хорошо, мы поедем на автобусе.

10. Подумать только! Завтра в это время я буду лететь над океаном!

 





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