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Комплект индивидуальных заданий (рефератов) по дисциплине, тематика курсовых работ (проектов)





Индивидуальные задания:

Вопросы по теоретической грамматике для контроля:

1. Сопоставительный анализ развития дескриптивной и прескриптивной грамматике.

2. Развитие морфологии в классической научной грамматике.

3. Представители трансформационной (структурной) лингвистики и их вклад в развитие грамматики английского языка.

4. Средства образования грамматических форм. ( синтетические и аналитические)

5. Семантическая классификация существительных.

6. Морфологическая классификация существительных и глаголов.

7. Функции личных форм глаголов ( инфинитива и герундия в предложении)

8. Грамматическое значение, грамматическая форма, грамматическая категория.

9. Независимое использование времен в английском языке ( какие времена и в каких типах предложений)

10. Категория наклонения (определение, типы; 4 типа сослагательного наклонения; использование модальных глаголов в Subjunctive II после wish и if.)

11. Double and Multiple sentences to be analysed. First write out each simple sentence in full (supplying all the omitted words), and then analyse according to the model:

The Lord knows the way of the righteous, but the way of the ungodly shall perish.

Little Betty has lost her sheep, and can’t tell where to find them.

She found them indeed, but it made her heart bleed; for they had left their tails behind them.

The hornet is our declared enemy, and a very troublesome one it is; however, it is well to make its acquaintance; for by doing so we shall be forced to admire it, and even to admire the instrument used by it for wounding us.

The life of some insects is brief, but very active; the female lives for two or three weeks, lays her eggs, and dies.

In wet weather the water rises and floats the eggs of the mosquito, producing an abundant harvest, whereas in dry seasons many eggs fail to reach the water, and so dry up and perish.

The barbers of Singapore have to shave heads and clean ears; for which latter operation they have a great array of tweezers, picks, and brushes.

Others carry a portable cooking-apparatus and serve up a meal of fish, rice, and vegetables for two or three halfpence; while porters and boatmen waiting to be hired are seen the other side.

In this way the spider lived in a precarious state for more than a week, and nature seemed to have fitted it for such a life; otherwise it could not have subsisted upon a single fly for so long a time.

Howard was then led to inquire into the condition of more distant jails; for which purpose he visited every large jail in England, and many of those in Scotland and Ireland.

At Venice he went with the greatest cheerfulness into the sick-house, where lie remained as usual for forty days, and thus exposed his life for the sake of his fellow-creatures.

The diver, on descending into the water, seizes the rope with the toes of his right foot, and takes hold of the bag with those of his left; nor does he expect to remain under water for less than two minutes.



The astrologers promise success to the divers; for they expect a liberal gift of pearls as a reward for the happy sense of confidence imparted by them to those men.

Sir Ralph the Rover tore his hair,

And beat his breast in his despair;

The waves rush in on every side,

And the ship sinks down beneath the tide.

We had a boat at our stern just before the storm, but she was staved by dashing against the ship’s rudder.

The ranger in his couch lay warm

And heard him plead in vain;

But oft amid December's storm

He’ll hear that voice again.

12.. Miscellaneous sentences to be analysed.

1. Blessed is the man that walked not in the counsel of the wicked, nor stood in the way of sinners, nor sat in the seat of the scornful.

2. Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I felt when I sank into the water.

3. At four o’clock p.m. we reached York, which is a fine old town dating back to the time of the Romans, though they called it by a different name that I cannot now remember.

4. If you put the end of an iron rod in the fire and hold it there, you not only heat the end, but the whole of the rod up to the end that you hold in your hand.

5. The elections proved that since the spring the distrust and hatred with which this Government was regarded had made fearful progress.

6. These men, whom I have never known, have suddenly left me, merely because I asked them to work a little overtime on account of certain orders that I unexpectedly received this morning from the Admiralty.

7. Sir Isaac Newton, after deep meditation, discovered that there is force in nature called attraction, by virtue of which every particle of matter in the world draws towards itself every other particle of matter with a force that is proportionate to its mass and distance.

8. Everywhere there is a class of men who cling with fondness to whatever is ancient.

9. When she I loved was strong and gay

And like a rose in June,

I to her cottage bent my way

Beneath the evening moon. Wordsworth.

10. After his schooling was finished, his father desiring him to be a merchant like himself, gave him a ship freighted with various sorts of merchandise, so that he might go and trade about the world, and become a help to his parents who were now advanced in age.

11. I heard a thousand blended notes,

While in a grove I sat reclined

In that sweet mood when pleasant thoughts

Bring sad thoughts to the mind. Wordsworth.

12. Content is a pearl of great price, and whoever procures it at the expense of ten thousand desires, makes a good purchase.

13. The rocks that first meet the eye of the traveller, as he enters the Suez Canal, are a part of the breakwater that extends out into the sea for two miles on either side of the canal.

14. This poor widow had cast in more than they all; for they cast in of their abundance; but she of her want had cast in all that she had, even all her living.

15. Air, when it is heated, expands, or in other words the particles of which it is composed are driven farther and farther apart from one another; and so the air being less dense, less compact, or less solid, becomes proportionately lighter.

16. Our deeds shall travel with us from afar,

And what we have been makes us what we are. G. Eliot.

17. Foul deeds will rise,

Though all the earth overwhelm them, to men’s eyes. Shakespeare.

18. An anonymous letter signifies that the writer lacks moral courage to affix his name, and either cannot or dare not face the contents.

19. Just so we have heard a baby, mounted on the shoulders of its father, cry out, “How much taller I am than papa!”

20. I like a rascal to be punished, when I am quite sure that his guilt has been proved before a jury who had no prejudice against him, before they began hearing his case.

21. The electricity of the air stimulates the vegetation of the trees, and scarcely a week passes before the plants are covered with the larvae of butterflies, the forest is murmuring with the hum of insects, and the air is harmonious with the voices of birds. – Tennet’s Ceylon.

22. As a goddess, she had whims and fancies of her own; and one of these was that no woman was permitted to touch the verge of her mountain or pluck the berries of a certain bush that grew upon the sides. – Volcano of the Hawaians.

23. I shun a friend who pronounces my actions to be good when they are bad; but I like a simple and sincere friend, who holds my faults as he would a looking-glass before my face, and compels me to see them.

24. He that bullies those who are not in a position to resist him may be a snob, but cannot be a gentleman.

25. When the eggs have been transformed into the state of larva or caterpillar they change their skin three times in the course of two or three weeks, each change being preceded by a period of repose and succeeded by one of activity and voracity.

26. Every one who is not blind has seen a butterfly, that light and happy insect, which flies from flower to flower in fields and gardens, adding brightness and beauty wherever it goes.

13. Convert from Multiple to Simple:

1. An ass accidentally found a lion’s skin, and put it on to frighten the other beasts.

2. He was fatigued with walking, and so he sat down to take a little rest.

3. Turn to the left and you will find the house of your friend.

4. Not only the tank, but even a part of the river was frozen over with ice.

5. The Judge, as well as the jury, believed the prisoner to be guilty.

6. You must work hard the whole term, and then you will get promotion.

7. He was the son of poor parents, and therefore he had to encounter many trials and difficulties at the outset of his career.

8. He was a poor man, and yet he was of an independent spirit at all times.

9. I advised him to make the best use of his time, but he paid no heed.

10. He was much frightened, but not much hurt.

11. Every effort was made to check the spread of cholera; yet a large number of persons died.

12. He was well fitted for that post by character and attainments; only he was rather too young and inexperienced.

13. He did his best to be punctual, but still he was occasionally behind time.

14. He is well versed in books, but wanting in common sense.

15. You must work hard, or you will not get promotion.

16. Give us some clear proofs of your assertion, otherwise no one will believe you.

17. A certain fowler fixed his net on the ground, and scattered a great many grains of rice about it.

18. The pigeons flew down to pick up the rice grains; for they were all hungry.

19. The old man frequently begged his sons to live together in peace, but he was disregarded.

(Дополнительные задания см. Л.Д. Червякова Практикум по теоретической грамматике английского языка. стр. 146-154)

Темы рефератов:

1. School Grammar

2. N. Chomsky and Transformational Generative Grammar

3. James Harris – writer on universal grammar

4. The language of Johnson and Lowth

5. Avram Noam Chomsky. His contribution to linguistics

6. Ch. Fries. The contribution to English grammar

7. Universal Languages Schemes in Seventeenth – century. Britain: John Wilkins

8. Номинативные средства языка

9. Cross-cultural research: Some questions and few answers

10. The lexical and grammatical changes in the modern English grammar

Темы курсовых работ:

1) Английский язык как язык синтетического строя.

2) Английское и русское простое предложение: сопоставительный анализ.

3) Английское местоимение.

4) Английское причастие.

5) Английское простое предложение.

6) Артикль.

7) Виды синтаксических связей в современном английском языке.

8) Второстепенные члены английского предложения.

9) Генеративная грамматика, ее задачи и способы исследования.

10) Главные члены английского предложения.

11) Грамматика как раздел языкознания.

12) Грамматические единицы.

13) Деепричастие и герундий: сопоставительный анализ.

14) Залог и наклонение: сопоставительный анализ английского и русского языков.

15) Имя прилагательное в английском и русском языках: сопоставительный анализ.

16) Имя числительное в английском и русском языках: сопоставительный анализ.

17) Инфинитивные конструкции в современном английском языке.

18) История европейской грамматической мысли.

19) Категория определенности/неопределенности и способы ее выражения в современном английском языке.

20) Личные формы английского глагола.

21) Модальные глаголы в современном английском языке.

22) Неличные формы глагола в современном английском языке. Их характеристика.

23) Понятие грамматической категории. Грамматические категории английского глагола.

24) Понятие грамматической категории. Грамматические категории английского имени существительного.

25) Понятие диахронии и синхронии в языке.

26) Предложение и понятие предикативности (на примере английского языка).

27) Предложение как важнейшая единица грамматического строя языка.

28) Предмет, объект, задачи и методы изучения грамматики.

29) Придаточные предложения времени и условия в современных английском и русском языках: сопоставительный аспект.

30) Причастие в английском и русском языках: сопоставительный анализ.

31) Простое английское предложение.

32) Самостоятельные и служебные части речи в английском языке.

33) Синтагматические и парадигматические отношения в языке (на примере английского языка).

34) Система глагольных времен в современном английском языке.

35) Слово как одна из основных единиц грамматики. Понятие грамматического значения.

36) Словообразовательные модели современного английского языка.

37) Сложное английское предложение.

38) Сложноподчиненное английское предложение.

39) Сложносочиненное английское предложение.

40) Сопоставительная характеристика грамматических категорий английского и русского имени существительного.

41) Сопоставительная характеристика грамматических категорий английского и русского глагола.

42) Сослагательное наклонение в современном английском языке.

43) Способы выражения будущего времени в современном английском языке.

44) Способы выражения модальности в современных английском и русском языках.

45) Типы придаточных предложений в современном английском языке.

46) Учение об актуальном членении предложения.

47) Формальная грамматика, ее задачи и способы исследования.

48) Функциональная грамматика, ее задачи и способы исследования.

49) Языки аналитического и синтетического строя.

50) Языковые универсалии.

 

8.Образцы студенческих работ (рефераты и курсовые работы):

 

Работа 1.





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