Introductory Clauses and Phrases
A comma should be used after an introductory adverb clause, an introductory participial phrase, or a succession of introductory prepositional phrases.
(1) Adverb Clause
While Mario put the costume on, his accompanist played Deep Purple. An adverbial clause at the end of a sentence is not usually set off.
His accompanist played “Deep Purple” while Mario put the costume on.
(2) Participal Phrases
Watching the game from his elm-tree vantage point, Elmer forgot to hold on.
A verbal noun ending in – ing and used as the subject of the sentence should not be confused with an introductory participial phrase.
Washing and polishing the car is fun. (verbal nouns as subject)
Washing and polishing the car, I developed some sore muscles. (participial phrase)
(3) Succession of Prepositional Phrases
At the edge of the deep woods near Lakeville in Cumberland County, he built a small log cabin.
A single introductory prepositional phrase need not be followed by a comma unless it is parenthetical (by the way, on the contrary, etc) or necessary to prevent confusion.
With the weak, competition is unpopular. In the morning I am never wide awake.
The essays were all finished early.
Please finish your compositions on time.
Notice the absence of fresh air in this room.
They asked if the professor would appear that day.
Dr. Mr. Mrs. Ms. St. asst. (these are used before names)
M.D. D.D. Jr. Sr. Ph.D. Esq. (Do not use a period for abbreviations for agencies or acronyms)
NAACP NATO NAFTA MLA
Use question marks with a series of questions within a sentence.
One must always consider who? what? where? when? and why a problem occurred hen writing a thesis.
5. Use a question mark with doubtful information.
She gave the answer to the problem as 28 (7) but her computations did not show how she arrived at that figure.
However, Dark persisted with his explanation.
3. Use commas to enclose nonrestrictive elements.
Dark Kent, who is a talented manipulator, knew he could convince Lois to help him with the assignment.
4. Use commas with nonrestrictive appositives.
Superman, Dark Kent, is an interesting illusion.
Nonrestrictive elements are those which are not necessary for the sentence meaning, as contrasted restrictive elements can not be removed from a sentence without changing meaning.
5. Use commas with most absolute phrases.
His costume approved by his mother, Dark went to work.
6. Use commas with elements that interrupt or stand outside the sentence or independent clause structure.
Dark, you must improve your comma usage.
My, my, my, I do enjoy watching “Superman”.
Yes, the new series is certainly interesting.
No, I do not wish to watch the re-runs of the old series.
7. Use commas with elements that stand outside or within independent clauses, conjunctive adverbs (Superman’s flying, therefore, must be super) and transitional words (Thus, Lois is always safe in his grasp.)
10. Use commas with elements in a series.
The Joker, the Penguin, Catwoman, and Robin are characters in the “Batman” series, in the “Superman” series.
11. Use commas after introductions to quotations.
Alphonse Brown indicates, “Superman is a figment of the starved population which assumes that society's ills can only be solved through a super human being.”
12. Use commas after salutations and closings as in the following letter.
Dear Lois and Clark,
You have provided protection and security for Metropolis for years, so now, we would like to invite you to consider Grand Rapids, Michigan, as your new challenge. We would, welcome your attention, and eagerly await your reply.
13. Use commas in addresses and in dates, (see ex. 12)
14. Use commas in long numbers with more than three digits.
15. Use commas with titles and classifications, С. К. Superman, Jr., will fly again in 1997.
David R. Brown, M.D., has never had a malpractice suit against him.
16. Use commas to clarify meaning. Years before, Clark met Lois.
Rules: periods and commas go inside quote marks unless a parenthetical citation is necessary; colons and semicolons go outside quote marks.
1. Use a semicolon between independent clauses not joined by coordinating conjunctions but bearing a dose relationship.
2. Use a semicolon between independent clauses joined by conjunctive adverbs or transitional expressions: however, moreover. Going to the circus is fun; however, I hate the animal abuse.
3. Use a semicolon between items in an already punctuated series.
Рекомендуемые учебники и учебные пособия:
Барабаш Т.А., Грамматика английского языка. М., 2001 г.
Червякова Л.Д., Практикум по теоретической грамматике английского языка. М., РУДН, 2006 г.
Каушанская В.М., Ковнер Р.Л. Грамматика английского языка. Л., 1963.
Смирницкий А.И. Морфология английского языка. М.. 1959.
Власова М.Г. Сравнительный анализ типов международных переговоров. Дис. … канд. пед. наук. – М., 1998.
Воронцова Г.Н. Очерки по грамматике английского языка. М., 1960.
Иофик Л.Л., Чахоян Л.Л. Хрестоматия по теоретической грамматике английского языка. Л., 1967.
Саенко М.В. Нестандартные грамматические конструкции в современном испанском разговорном языке: Дис. … канд. филол. наук. – СПб., 1995.
Супрун А.В. Грамматика и семантика простого предложения (на материале испанского языка). – М.: Наука, 1977.
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