The economy of the United Kingdom
Общие методические указания
По самостоятельной подготовке к экзамену
Подготовка студентов заочного отделения к экзамену является одним из основных и трудоемких видов учебной деятельности. Эффективность этой деятельности во многом зависит от самостоятельной работы при подготовке к экзамену. В часы самоподготовки необходимо самостоятельно изучить материал. При этом самостоятельную работу необходимо понимать не только как «домашнюю» работу по подготовке к практическому занятию, но и как всю совокупность предшествующих ему занятий:
– изучение задания и методических указаний к практическому занятию по данной теме;
– консультации накануне проведения экзамена и получение индивидуальной методической помощи;
– изучение рекомендованной литературы, работа со справочным материалом, со словарями.
Активное участие студентов в обсуждении рассматриваемых заданий на английском языке предполагает умение внимательно слушать своих товарищей, анализировать содержание и форму этих сообщений, давать им объективную оценку. Получив задание, постарайтесь осмыслить его содержание, и после этого приступить к выполнению заданий.
Как работать с методическими рекомендациями
Чтобы найти интересующую Вас тему, просмотрите оглавление, содержащее заголовки текстов. Если тему по оглавлению найти трудно, воспользуйтесь списком экзаменационных тем и соответствующих им текстов.
Для более эффективной работы с текстом, необходимо следовать рекомендациям:
- прочитайте текст; при чтении и переводе текста удобно пользоваться тематическим словарем, приводимым после каждого текста;
- после того, как Вы ознакомитесь с содержанием текста и усвоите словарь, попробуйте ответить на вопросы. Если это сделать трудно, обратитесь к тексту;
- пересказывать каждый текст следует не менее двух раз. При первом пересказе воспользуйтесь не самим текстом, а словарем к нему. Словарь составлен в том порядке, в котором слова встречаются в тексте;
- второй раз текст следует пересказывать, закрыв книгу. Если это не получается, вернитесь к предыдущему пункту.
ТЕМЫ, ВЫНОСИМЫЕ НА ЭКЗАМЕН
Place where I live
First of all I want to tell you some words about the building where our flat islocated. It is nine – storied apartment house in the south – west of the city. There is a park not far from my house. I live on the fourth floor in three – room flat. There is a living – room, two bedrooms, a bathroom, a large kitchen and a hall.
The living – room with a wall – size window facing the park is quite large. In this room there is a furniture unit, a TV – set, a video – recorder and a tape – recorder here. On the walls there are some pictures. A thick carpet covers the floor. We spend every eveningin this room. We watch TV, listen to the music or discuss the problemsof the day.
My bedrooms are rather large. There are two beds, a mirror on the wall, a wardrobe some book-shelves, two chairs and a table with a computer on it in my bedrooms.
Also I want to tell you about my kitchen and my bathroom.
Our kitchen is large. In the kitchen there is a gas stove, a fridge, a sink with two taps on it, a cupboard, a table and six stools there.
The bathroom is very cosy too. There is a bath, a washbasin with hot and cold water there. I often invite my friends to my flat. And everybody feels at home here.
I like my flat very much. There is no place like home.
1. Where do you live?
2. What floor do you live on?
3. How many rooms are there in your flat?
4. What is there in the living room?
5. What is there in your bedroom?
6. Is the kitchen large or small?
7. Do you like your flat?
My native town
My native town is Astrakhan.
It was founded in the16-th century in 1558.
Astrakhan is a beautiful town. It stands on the banks of the river Volga.
Every year thousands of tourists come to my native town. They come to visit the historical places of our town. The symbolof our town is the Kremlin. It is the most beautiful and famous place in our town.
Astrakhan is a fast – growing town. There are some big plants and factories here.
Astrakhan also is a big cultural center. It has many universities, schools and technical colleges.
The city has rich cultural traditions. There are many famous museums, art galleries, theatres, cinemas, parks in my native town.
In Astrakhan you can visit thePuppet Theatre, the Philharmonic Society, theDrama Theatre, thePicture Gallery and many others.
I love my town and I am proud to be its citizen.
1. What is your native town?
2. When was your native town founded?
3. What is the symbol of your town?
4. Is Astrakhana fast – growing town?
5. Are there many parks, museums and theatres in it?
6. What places can you visit in your native town?
7. Are you proud to be the citizen of your native town?
At 17,075,400 square kilometers, Russia is the largest country in the world, covering more than an eighth of the Earth’s land area; with 142 million people, it is the ninth largest by population. It extends across the whole of northern Asia and 40% of Europe, spanning 11 time zones and incorporating a great range of environments and landforms. Russia has the world's greatest reserves of mineral and energy resources, and is considered an energy superpower. It has the world's largest forest reserves and its lakes contain approximately one-quarter of the world's unfrozen fresh water.
According to the Constitution, which was adopted by national referendum on 12 December 1993 following the 1993 Russian constitutional crisis, Russia is a federation and formally a semi-presidential republic, wherein the President is the head of state and the Prime Minister is the head of government. The Russian Federation is fundamentally structured as a representative democracy. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in the two chambers of the Federal Assembly. The government is regulated by a system of checks and balances defined by the Constitution of the Russian Federation, which serves as the country's supreme legal document and as a social contract for the people of the Russian Federation.
Russia has the world's largest natural gas reserves, the second largest coal reserves and the eighth largest oil reserves. It is the world's leading natural gas exporter and the second leading oil exporter. Oil, natural gas, metals, and timber account for more than 80% of Russian exports abroad. Since 2003, however, exports of natural resources started decreasing in economic importance as the internal market strengthened considerably. Despite higher energy prices, oil and gas only contribute to 5.7% of Russia's GDP and the government predicts this will drop to 3.7% by 2011. Russia is also considered well ahead of most other resource-rich countries in its economic development, with a long tradition of education, science, and industry. The country has more higher education graduates than any other country in Europe.
1. What territory does Russia occupy?
2. What is the population of Russia?
3. Russia is considered an energy superpower, isn’t it?
4. What is the political system in Russia?
5. How is the Russian Federation structured?
6. How is executive power exercised?
7. How is the government regulated?
8. What resources is the Russian Federation rich in?
9. Why did exports of natural resources start decreasing since 2003?
10. Russia has more higher education graduates than any other country in Europe, doesn’t it?
Great Britain is the larger of the two main islands of the British Isles, the largest island in Europe and the ninth-largest island in the world. It is also the second richest island in the world (after Japan) with the world's 5th largest economy and 58 million people. It lies to the northwest of Continental Europe, with Ireland to the west, and makes up the largest part of the territory of the country known as the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. It is surrounded by over 1,000 smaller islands and islets.
England, Scotland and Wales are mostly situated on the island, along with their capital cities, London, Edinburgh and Cardiff respectively. The earliest known name of Great Britain is Albion (Ἀλβίων) or insula Albionum, from either the Latin albus meaning white. The population of the United Kingdom is over 57 mln. The majority of the British population lives in cities and towns. The country is washed by the North and Irish Seas, the Atlantic Ocean and the English Channel.
Great Britain is a highly developed industrial power. It possesses some mineral resources: coal, iron ores, oil, gas, and some metals. The country is known as one of the world largest producers and exporters of electronics and machinery, chemicals and textile, various aircraft and navigation equipment.
Great Britain is a country with old cultural traditions and customs. The official language of the state is English. The national symbol of the UK is “Union Jack” – the British state flag having 3 white and red crosses on the dark blue field. The weave of crosses symbolizes power and might.
Britain is a parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch – Queen Elizabeth 2 – as the head of the State. Queen’s power is limited by the Parliament. Parliament is the supreme legislative authority in Britain and the Prime Minister is the virtual ruler of the country.
Parliament comprises the House of Commons, the House of Lords and the Queen in her Constitutional role.
Government in Britain since 1945 has alternated between only 2 political parties, the Conservatives and the Labor party.
1. What is the official name of Great Britain?
2. Where is the United Kingdom situated?
3. What is the population of the Great Britain?
4. What are the seas and the oceans Great Britain is washed by? (What seas and oceans is Great Britain washed by?)
5. Great Britain is a highly developed country, isn’t it? What goods does it produce?
6. What is the national symbol of the UK? What does it symbolize?
7. What is the political system of Great Britain?
8. Is the power of the Queen limited by Parliament?
9. What does Parliament comprise?
10. What are the main political parties in Great Britain?
The economy of the United Kingdom
The economy of the United Kingdom is the fifth largest in the world in terms of market exchange rates and the sixth largest by purchasing power parity (PPP). It is the second largest economy in Europe after Germany's. Its GDP PPP per capita in 2007 is the 22nd highest in the world.
The United Kingdom is one of the world's most globalised countries. The capital, London, is the major financial centre of the world, in front of New York City, Hong Kong and Singapore according to a report compiled by the City of London.
The British economy is made up (in descending order of size) of the economies of England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. The UK became a member state of the European Community, in 1973, and ratified the Maastricht Treaty making it a European Union state, at the inception of the EU in 1993.
In the 1980s, under the Government of Margaret Thatcher, most state-owned enterprises in the industrial and service sectors, which since the 1940s had been nationalized, were privatized. The British Government now owns very few industries or businesses - Royal Mail is one example.
The United Kingdom, according to the International Monetary Fund, in 2007 had the ninth highest level of GDP per capita in the European Union in terms of purchasing power parity, after Luxembourg, Ireland, the Netherlands, Austria, Denmark, Sweden, Belgium and Finland. However, in common with the economies of other English-speaking countries, it has higher levels of income inequality than many European countries.
During August 2008 the IMF has warned that the UK economic outlook has worsened due to a twin shock: financial turmoil as well as rising commodity prices. Both developments harm the UK more than most developed countries, as the UK obtains revenue from exporting financial services while recording deficits in finished goods and commodities, including food.
The UK has the world's third largest current account deficit, despite significant oil revenues. This is mainly the result of a large deficit in the trade in manufacture goods. During May 2008, the IMF adviced the UK government to broaden the scope of fiscal policy to promote external balance.
Although the UK's "labour productivity per person employed" has been progressing well over the last two decades and has overtaken productivity in the united Germany, it lags around 20% behind France's level, where workers have a 35-hour working week. The UK's "labour productivity per hour worked" is currently on a par with the average for the "old" EU (15 countries).
The United Kingdom currently ranks 16th on the Human Development Index.
1. What is GDP PPP of the United Kingdom per capita?
2. When did the UK become a member state of the European Community? When did it ratify the Maastricht Treaty?
3. Are there many state-owned enterprises in the industrial and service sectors of Great Britain?
4. What is the level of GDP of the UK per capita according to the International Monetary Fund?
5. Why did the UK economic outlook worsen in August 2008?
6. Why does the UK have the world's third largest current account deficit?
7. What is the UK's "labour productivity per person employed"
8. What is the current UK's "labour productivity per hour worked"?
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