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Basic functions of management

Management operates through various functions, often classified as planning, organizing, leading/motivating and controlling.

  • Planning: deciding what needs to happen in the future (today, next week, next month, next year, over the next 5 years, etc.) and generating plans for action.(What to do?)
  • Organizing: (Implementation) making optimum use of the resources required to enable the successful carrying out of plans.
  • Staffing: Job Analyzing, recruitment, and hiring individual for appropriate job.
  • Leading/Motivating: exhibiting skills in these areas for getting others to play an effective part in achieving plans.(To make individual work willingly in the organization)
  • Controlling: monitoring -- checking progress against plans, which may need modification based on feedback.



accomplish Совершать, достигать, совершенствовать
goal Цель, задача
encompass Окружать, заключать
perform Исполнять, выполнять
measuring Измеряя
quantity Количество
narrow Узкий, тесный, подробный
existence Существование, наличие, существо
charity Милосердие, благотворительность
refer Направлять, обращаться
employ Служба, работа по найму, нанимать
corporation Корпорация, акционерное общество
various Различный, разный
optimum Наиболее благоприятные условия
recruitment Набор, пополнение
staffing Укомплектовывать штаты
skill Искусство, мастерство
feedback Обратная связь


1. What is management?

2. What does management comprise?

3. What does resourcing encompass?

4. Where does the word “management” come from?

5. How did Mary Parker Follett define management?

6. What functions does management consist of according to Frenchman Henri Fayol?

7. What does the phrase "management is what managers do" mean?

8. Can the term “management” be used as equivalent to "business administration"?

9. How does management operate?

10. What is planning? (Dwell on this item.)

11. What is organizing? (Dwell on this item.)

12. What is staffing? (Dwell on this item.)

13. What is leading/motivating? (Dwell on this item.)

14. What is controlling? (Dwell on this item.)

Тopic 11



A contract is an exchange of promises between two or more parties to do or refrain from doing an act which is enforceable in a court of law. Contract law is based on the Latin phrase pacta sunt servanda (pacts must be kept). Breach of contract is recognised by the law and remedies can be provided. Almost everyone enters into contracts every day. Sometimes written contracts are required, such as when buying a house. However, most contracts can be and are made orally, like buying a law textbook, or purchasing coffee at a shop. Contract law can be classified, as is habitual in civil law systems, as part of a general law of obligations (along with tort, unjust enrichment or restitution).

According to legal scholar Sir John William Salmond, a contract is "an agreement creating and defining the obligations between two or more parties".

The most important feature of a contract is that one party makes an offer for an arrangement that another accepts. This can be called a 'concurrence of wills' or 'ad idem' (meeting of the minds) of two or more parties. There must be evidence that the parties had each from an objective perspective engaged in conduct manifesting their assent, and a contract will be formed when the parties have met such a requirement. An objective perspective means that it is only necessary that somebody gives the impression of offering or accepting contractual terms in the eyes of a reasonable person, not that they actually did want to form a contract.

Contrary to common wisdom, an informal exchange of promises can still be binding and legally as valid as a written contract. A spoken contract should be called an oral contract, which might be considered a subset of verbal contracts. Any contract that uses words, spoken or written, is a verbal contract. Thus, all oral contracts and written contracts are verbal contracts. This is in contrast to a "non-verbal, non-oral contract," also known as "a contract implied by the acts of the parties", which can be either implied in fact or implied in law.


exchange обмен
promise обещание
refrain воздерживаться
breach нарушение
remedy Средство судебной защиты
habitual обычный
obligations обязательства
important feature Важная особенность
offer предложение
arrangement Соглашение, договоренность
evidence Основание, очевидность
requirement Требование, необходимое условие
wisdom мудрость
valid Действительный, имеющий силу
consider Рассматривать, обсуждать
imply Значить, подразумевать
enforceable Осуществимый, обеспечиваемый
thus Так, таким образом



1. What is a contract?

2. What Latin phrase is contract law based on?

3. Is breach of contract recognized by the law?

4. How can contracts be made?

5. How can contract law be classified?

6. What is a contract according to legal scholar Sir John William Salmond?

7. What is a 'concurrence of wills'?

8. What does an objective perspective mean?

9. Can an informal exchange of promises be binding and legally as valid as a written contract?

10. What is a verbal contract?

11. What is a "non-verbal, non-oral contract"?

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