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Примеры статей для перевода на экзамене





 

Исходя из того, что одной из форм контроля знаний студентов является ознакомление с содержанием текста статьи по экономической тематике и изложение его содержания на русском языке, ниже приводятся статьи объемом 1500 печатных знаков, которые будут представлены на экзамене по английскому языку.

Работа с текстом статьи предполагает выполнение ряда требования:

- понять общее содержание всего текста;

- прочитать и письменно перевести указанный выделенный курсивом отрывок (600 печ. знаков) со словарем за 35 минут;

- вести беседу с преподавателем на иностранном языке по пройденным темам устной речи.

MARKETS

The function of a market requires that both parties expect to become better off as a result of the transaction. Markets are efficient when the price of a good or service attracts as much demand as the market can currently supply. The chief function of a market is to adjust prices to accommodate fluctuations in supply and demand. An economic system in which goods and services are exchanged by market functions is called a market economy. An alternative economic system in which non-market forces determine prices is called planned economy or command economy. The attempt to combine socialist ideals with the incentive system of a market is known as market socialism.

There are various types of markets and organizational structures to assist their functions. A market can be organized as an auction, as a shopping center, as a complex institution such as a stock market, and as an informal discussion between two individuals.

In economics, a market that runs under laissez-faire policies is a free market. It is “free” in the sense that the government makes no attempt to intervene through taxes, subsidies, minimum wages, price ceilings, etc. Markets may be distorted by a seller or sellers with monopoly power, or a buyer with monophony power. The level of organization or negotiation power of buyers, markedly affects the functioning of the market. Markets where price negotiations do not arrive at efficient outcomes for both sides are said to experience market failure.

‘Market’, Wikipedia

 

TIPS FOR A YOUNG MANAGER

The first steps to becoming a really great manager are simply common sense; but common sense is not very common. The major problem when you start to manage is that you do not actually think about management issues because you do not recognize them. Things normally go wrong not because you are stupid but only because you have never thought about it. Management is about pausing to ask yourself the right questions so that your common sense can provide the answers.

When you gain managerial responsibility, your first option is to do what is expected of you. You are new at the job, so people will understand. You can learn (slowly) by your mistakes and probably you will try to devote as much time as possible to the rest of your work (which is what your were good at anyway). Those extra little “management” problems are just common sense, so try to deal with them when they come up.

Your second option is far more exciting: find an empty telephone box, put on a cape and bright-red underpants, and become a Super Manager. When you become a manager, you gain control over your own work; not all of it, but some of it. You can change things. You can do things differently. You actually have the authority to make a huge impact upon the way in which your staff works. You can shape your own work environment.



‘What makes a great manager’, www. project-management-blog.com/2006/05/

CITY GOVERNMENT

City government is a system of governmental institutions that serve an urban area or urban municipality. Modern cities are almost always contained within the boundaries of national states, and their governments form parts of a larger constitutional regime that usually includes state or provincial governments and a national government.

A city government’s most important functions are to provide law enforcement and fire prevention; elementary and secondary education; water supply, sewage, and refuse collection and disposal; construction, maintenance, and lighting of the streets; regulation of building safety and housing standards; the provision of public housing; various welfare services for the needy; health protection, medical care environmental services. Cities also provide museums, parks, playgrounds, and other recreational facilities. Public-utility services that supply water, electricity, gas, and public transport may be provided by a city government or by commercial companies regulated by the government.

City planning is another important function. City governments typically achieve their land-planning goals by enacting zoning laws that govern the use of land and buildings, the density of population, and the height, bulk, and spacing of structures. Planning also involves the use of subdivision controls, which subject the initial laying-out of vacant land to public regulation.

‘City Government’, Encyclopedia Britannica

Рекомендуемая литература для подготовки к экзамену

Основная литература

1. Русско-английский экономический словарь: Более 80000 терминов и терминологических словосочетаний/Под общ. Ред. Жданова И.Ф. – Русский язык - Медиа, 2007. ISBN: 978-5-9576-0323-8

2. Агабекян И.П., Коваленко П.И. Английский для экономистов. –Ростов н/Д., Феникс 2008. ISBN 978-5-222-13774-1

3. Глушенкова Е.В.Элементарный английский для экономистов. – М., АСТ. 2005. ISBN: 5-17-026227-2

4. Никитаев С.Н. Английский язык для специальных целей. – М.,Айрис-пресс. – М.,2007.

Дополнительная литература

1. Буданов С.И., Борисова А.А. Деловой английский язык. – М.: Эксмо, 2008.

2. Цветкова Т.К. Грамматика английского языка. Упражнения с ключами: уч. пособие. – М.: ТК Велби, Изд-во Проспект, 2007. Английский для юристов: Учебное пособие для вузов, Шевелева С.А., М.: Юнити-Дана, 2005.

3. Большой современный англо-русский, русско-английский словарь: 170 000 слов, Сиротина Т.А., М.: БАО-Пресс, 2005.

 





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