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Words and expressions. 1. scientific and technological progress

1. scientific and technological progress

2. to overcome time and distances

3. in the twinkle of an eye

4. limits and frontiers

5. on business or for holiday

6. place of our destination

7. to travel by...

8. cockpit

9. to reclining in comfortable armchairs

10. kitchenette

11. stewardesses

12. to inform about the altitude

13. a geographical map

14. to book tickets in advance

15. the appointed day

16. to board the big air-liner

17. to take off

18. the plane is due to arrive

19. in time

Types of travelling: by train (railway), by air (plane), by car (bus), by sea (ship),

by metro (underground), on foot, hitchhiking ,on horseback.


The scientific and technological progress of the 20-th century has allowed people to overcome time and distance, to cover in the twinkle of an eye the vast expanse of our planet. The whole world is open now. The limits and frontiers of the previous period have stopped to exist.

We can choose any place on the planet and go there on business or for holiday. We can go to the place of our destination by sea, by air, by rail or by road.

Most people travel from curiosity, for fun; or because they like to see different beautiful and strange things. Some people also think that a change is as good as rest.

If you want to get somewhere as quickly as possible the best way is to travel by plane. It is the fastest and the most convenient way, but it is the most expensive too. It is better to book tickets in advance. On the appointed day you go to the airport by car. Soon you will board the big airliner and it will carry you to new lands. When on the plane you may look about. In front of you in the cockpit you will see a pilot and his crew. Some of the passengers are reclining in comfortable armchairs. There is a kitchenette in the rear part of the plane where the stewardesses are cooking. Presently we take off and in a few minutes the voice informs us about the altitude we are flying. Sometimes it is possible to see the land. It is like a geographical map. Our plane is due to arrive in eight hours. Time passes quickly. The plane arrives at the airport in time.

There are other ways of travelling. If you are an adventurer you can travel by hitchhiking, bicycles, on horseback. All means of travelling are not perfect. They all have their advantages and disadvantages .For most people speed is very important, but other people prefer comfort to speed. Of course, safety is the most important factor. In fact, no matter which way of travelling you choose, it’ll give you great pleasure.

Words and expressions.

1. expensive

2. to do a lot of sightseeing

3. coach tours

4. luggage


Coach tours are not expensive and I like them very much. They are planned as holidays and there is a chance to do a lot of sightseeing and have a good rest at the same time.

Last year I went by coach through a few countries and enjoyed the tour very much. During the ten-day holiday we visited Hungary, Slovenia and Italy. Sightseeing was combined with rest. For a few days we stayed at some lovely small hotels. There was no trouble with the luggage because it was taken care of at every night stop. Moreover hotels were carefully selected and booked in advance.




Words and expressions

1. dozens of

2. all sort of goods

3. for cash

4. convenient

5. department store

6. different departments

7. expensive (cheap)

8. to run out of

9. to call at

10. provision shops

11. a lot of counters

12. a self-service shop

13. ready-weighed and ready-packed

14. to have a sweet tooth

Kinds of shops: supermarket (grocery, bakery, butchery, confectionery, dairy, greengrocery, fishmonger’s).

Department store. (clothing, shoe, toy, furniture, music, jeweller’s, perfumery, stationery, gift, china, hardware, haberdashery).

Drug store (chemist’s), bookshop, sports fashion, florist’s, newsagent’s, tobacconist’s.

In our city there are dozens of shops where one can buy all sort of goods for cash and on hire purchase. Of course, specialized shops (draper’s, hosiery’s, man’s outfitters, jeweller’s, stationer’s, etc.) have a wider choice of goods but it is more convenient to do shopping at a department store which sells various goods such as shirts and cameras, pots and pans, refrigerators and hats, underwear and furs, vacuum cleaners, tape-recorders and many other things under one roof.

In the department store there are hundreds of salesmen and saleswomen and dozens of different departments: haberdashery, hosiery, stationery, ready-made clothes for men and women, foot-wear, textiles, millinery, electric appliances, household goods, knitted goods, leather goods, sport goods, perfumery, toys, gift and souvenir and others.

The other day my husband, my son and I went to the Central Department Store. We had to buy a lot of things and we went from one department to another, from umbrellas to gloves, from suits to shoes, from socks and stockings to hats and bags up and down the department store.

First of all we went to the ready-made clothes department to buy a summer frock for me. I chose a nice cotton dress not too expensive and went to the dressing-booth to try it on. It was a close fitting sleeveless dress with a square neck. The dress was a good fit and I bought it. Then we went to the footwear department to buy a pair of shoes to match my new dress. I tried on some pairs but they were either a size too big or pinched in the toe. At last I bought a pair of nice low-heeled leather shoes. I also bought a bottle of perfume, a lipstick and nail varnish.

Then we went to the ready-made clothes department for men as my husband wanted to buy a single-breasted light suit. He tried on many suits but they were a bad fit: one of them was too tight in the waist and the trousers were too long and baggy, another was too loose and so on. Then we went to the shirt department and bought him two shirts. He also bought a scarf, cuff links, and a pair of socks and then our son persuaded us to buy him a new toy.

We had run out of some food products and on our way home we called at the provision shops. First we went to the baker’s and bought a loaf of white and brown bread, two rolls, a bun and half a kilo of rusks. Then we went to the butcher’s. There was a wide choice of lean and fat meat there such as beef, pork, mutton, veal, minced meat and poultry (goose, chicken, duck and turkey). We bought a kilo and a half of beef, a kilo of pork not too fat, a chicken and we all went to the dairy. There was bottled and loose milk, cream, sour cream, butter, cheese and eggs there. We bought half a pound of butter, a bottle of cream, two bottles of milk and went to the fishmonger’s. There were a lot of people there as there were different kinds of fresh, frozen, salted, smoked, dried and tinned fish: carp, cod, perch, pike, herring, sprats, caviar. We bought a herring, two carps and a pike to stuff. Next we called at the grocer’s. There were a lot of counters there and different food products: flour, tea, sugar, salt, jam, cereals, spice, tinned and frozen food. The grocer’s was a self-service shop. The customers went to the counters, chose the goods and paid at the cash desk. The goods were ready-weighed and ready-packed. We bought two kilos of flour, a kilo of sugar, half a kilo of macaroni. We also dropped in at the greengrocer’s and bought a good-sized head of cabbage, oranges, cucumbers, carrots, onions, apples and potatoes.

Our son has a sweet tooth so we went to the confectionery and bought candies, a chocolate bar and a tart.

Loaded with packages and awfully tired we went home.



Health Problems.


Words and expressions

1. to be lucky never to be sick

2. for examination and treatment

3. to have an appointment

11. patient

12. illness

13. to feel the pulse

4. to taste blood pressure

5. to sound the patient’s heart and lungs

6. X-ray

7. prescribe

8. medicine

9. chemist’s

10. to be fit

14. habit

15. plenty of fresh air and exercise

16. recommendations

17. regular meals


Some people are lucky never to be sick, but most of us have to go to a doctor sometimes for examination and treatment.

It is necessary to have an appointment when call at a doctor’s office. When a patient visits a doctor for the first time he will be asked a number of questions by the doctor’s assistant. Then the doctor can have your complete medical history. This will help the doctor in making a diagnosis.

The doctor asks the patient about the symptoms he has and about any illnesses he has had. Almost all the patients have to go through the necessary analyses. The doctor feels the pulse and naturally you will have your blood pressure tested. After sounding the patient’s heart and lungs the doctor sometimes asks the patient to be

X-rayed. After that the doctor prescribes some medicine and sometimes a diet and the patient goes to the chemist’s to have his prescription made up. Most medicines are sold by prescription only. The doctor’s prescription will say how much of the medicine the patient is to take, how often he is to take it and so on.

Very many people hate going to the dentist.

The dentist cleans the teeth first of all. One or two cavities can be filled in the visit, but sometimes you need return visits. Naturally it is better to have one’s teeth looked at regularly.


* * *

Lots of young people are not fit at all. They have already lost the energy and happiness that comes from the feeling really well.

Fitness comes from the way you live all the time, not just from some exercises done now and then. Good eating habits, wise drinking habits, regular sleeping habits, and plenty of fresh air and exercise, kept up during the week, are all important parts of the way to keep fit.

Physical exercise is of an exceptional importance. The man or woman who takes regular exercise will stay physically fit, retain youthful vigour and, perhaps most important to many people, keep a youthful shape. Good muscle tone is not synonymous with bulging biceps or muscular things and most of the exercises are designed to keep you supple and make you look slimmer.

Active and healthy life is especially important for students. They must keep fit to do well at the University. One has to get up early to get to the University in time; one has to spend long hours indoor, attending lectures and seminars or reading in the library. One has to stay up late getting ready for seminars, compositions. So one needs to be strong and healthy. What are ways to keep fit? Here are some recommendations for you.

First of all you must miss no chances of outdoor activities. Of course, there is your physical training class but that is definitely not enough. Skating or skiing in winter and swimming in summer must become part of your everyday life. Second, exercise. You must exercise whenever you can. Jogging has become quite popular nowadays and a lot of people run before breakfast. Third, regular meals are a must if you want to keep fit. Try to avoid going without any food for hours. Remember that an apple, a glass of milk or just a raw carrot that you brought from home is a better snack than sandwiches and coffee. Fourth, and this is very important, smoking, drugs, spirits is something you must give up for good if you want to keep fit.

There is nothing new in all this. The key word to all recommendations is everything. You must work on everything at once – exercise, diet, and healthy habits. These are basic principles.



Words and expressions

1. the capital


3. area

4. was founded

5. the city changed greatly

6. block of flats

7. square

8. plants and factories

9. to produce

10. centre of science

11. a circus

12. scientific

13. narrow ( wide)

14. one-storied houses

15. workshop

16. the Great Patriotic War

17. ruined to the ground

18. a leading industrial centre

19. a big traffic centre

20. two Underground lines

21. to be proud of


Minsk is the capital of the Republic of Belarus and its political, administrative, economic, scientific, industrial and cultural centre. Minsk has a population of about 1.8 million people. The city stands on the River Svisloch and its area is of 200 square km. Minsk was founded in 1067. Before the Revolution Minsk was a small provincial town with narrow streets, one-storied houses, factories and workshops. After the Revolution the city changed greatly. Minsk became the capital in 1913. Blocks of flats, green wide streets, beautiful squares, new plants and factories appeared in the capital.

Foreign invaders destroyed Minsk many times over the centuries. In the years of the Great Patriotic War it was practically ruined to the ground. After the war Minsk was rebuilt and it is more beautiful today than it used to be. The capital has become a well-built city with a lot of beautiful buildings and houses, wide and straight avenues and streets, big and modern plants and factories.

Minsk today is a leading industrial centre of the republic. It has a powerful industry. In the capital there are many plants and factories which produce tractors, TV sets, radios, motorcycles, bicycles, heavy trucks, watches, refrigerators, computers, textiles, footwear, food and other goods.

Minsk is also a city of science, students and schoolchildren. The centre of science in the Republic is the Academy of Sciences, which was opened in 1929 in Minsk. There are 5 000 doctors and candidates of science among Minsk scientists. Researches carried out here are in the different fields of modern science. Minsk has about 20 state higher educational institutions.

The cultural life in the capital is very interesting. There are about 10 theatres, some concert halls, a circus, a lot of cinemas, many palaces of culture, libraries, clubs and other cultural centres in the city.

There are many large parks, gardens and museums in our capital. Parks and gardens make a fifth of the city’s territory.

Minsk is a big traffic centre too. Thousands of cars, buses, trolley buses, trams go along its wide and beautiful streets. The first Underground line was built in Minsk in 1984 and there are two Underground lines here now.

In 1974 Minsk became a Hero-City. Our capital was awarded this title for its heroism and courage during the Great Patriotic War.

Although its history goes back more than 900 years, Minsk is actually a young and modern city. We are proud of our capital, which is beautiful at any time of the year and is growing and changing every year.


2 курс 3 семестр.

A) Great Britain.

Words and expressions

1. Northwest coast of Europe

2. lies on the British Isles

3. to be separated from

4. the English Channel

5. the Strait of Dover

6. washed by

7. conquer

8. invader

9. much varied

10. parliamentary democracy

11. head of State

12. legislative

13. executive

14. judicial

15. independent


The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is situated on the Northwest coast of Europe. The UK consists of 4 parts. They are: England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. The UK lies on the British Isles. There are some 5 500 islands. The two main islands are: Great Britain and Ireland. They are separated from the continent by the English Channel and the Strait of Dover. The west coast of the country is washed by the Atlantic Ocean and the Irish Sea; the east coast is washed by the North Sea. The area of the UK is some 244.100 square km. Its population is over 57 million people.

English is the official language, but it is not the only language, which people speak in the country.

Britain has been many centuries in the making. The Romans conquered most part of Britain, but were unable to subdue the independent tribes in the West and in the North. Other invaders were Angels, Saxons, Jutes, Vikings and Normans. For many centuries this country was known simply as England. It had a strong army and navy. It waged numerous colonial wars. In the modern world England was the first country, where capitalism was established.

Geographically Great Britain is divided into Lowland Britain and Highland Britain. Lowland Britain comprises Southern and Eastern England. Highland Britain includes Scotland, Wales, the Pennies and the Lake District. The highest mountain – Ben Nevis – is in Scotland. The flora of the British Isles is much varied and the fauna is similar to that of the northwest Europe. The country is not very rich in natural resources.

There are many rivers in Great Britain. The Severn is the longest river; the Thames is the most important one.

London is the capital of the UK. It was founded by the Romans. The population of London is over 8 million people.

London is situated on the river Thames. Traditionally it is divided into several parts: the City, Westminster, the West End and the East End. London offers the visitors a great variety of places of interest. World famous places are the Houses of Parliament, Westminster Abbey, St. Paul’s Cathedral, Trafalgar Square, the Tower of London and so on.

The largest cities of Great Britain besides London are: Birmingham, Glasgow, Liverpool, Manchester, Sheffield, Bristol, Leeds and Edinburgh. Oxford and Cambridge are famous for their universities.

Great Britain is a parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, as head of State. The organs of government are: the legislative, the executive and the judiciary.

In Great Britain there is no written constitution, only customs, traditions and precedents.


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