US criminal justice system
The criminal justice system is an integrated apparatus whose functions are to apprehend, prosecute, convict, sentence, and correct offenders. The US system is federal by its nature, i.e. it consists of three subsystems: state, local and federal criminal justice agencies. The system is composed of three components: police, court, and corrections. Each component must contribute to the same goal – the prevention and control of crime and the rehabilitation of offenders. So the effectiveness of the whole system depends on the efficient functioning of each component and their efficient interaction. But at present the criminal justice system doesn’t work successfully. Of the several million serious crimes reported every year to police, ranging from murder to car theft, only one in nine results in a conviction. The rate of solution varies with different crimes. Murder is usually reported, and 86 per cent of all reported murders lead to arrests.
In contrast, only 19 per cent of all the burglaries reported to police lead to an arrest.
Robbery – taking property from a person by force or threat of force – is a crime of violence, dangerous to life and increasing rapidly. But chances of a robber being convicted are small. Only 27 per cent of all robberies lead to an arrest.
Less than two-thirds of the cases in which individuals are charged with murder and robbery are prosecutable. Often the reasons are: insufficient evidence, mistaken identity, unprofessional work of law enforcement agencies, etc. Long delays in trials may lead to dismissals because witnesses die or disappear, evidence is stale or lost. When we consider the performance of correctional agencies, the failure of the criminal justice system becomes quite evident. While there may be only one conviction for every fifty or more serious crimes, only one in four convicted will go to prison, and most who are imprisoned will commit crimes after their release. Thus from among the very small portion of all the people who commit serious crimes and are finally imprisoned, the system fails to rehabilitate the majority.
Answer the questions in written form.
Ответьте на вопросы письменно.
1. What are the functions of criminal justice system?
2. What are the components of the system?
3. What is the goal of the criminal justice system?
4. What does the effectiveness of the system depend on?
5. Why are only two-thirds of cases of murder and robbery prosecutable?
6. What is robbery?
7. Does the system work successfully?
Put all types of questions to the sentences.
Поставьте все типы вопросов к следующим предложениям. Обозначьте тип вопроса.
1. The effectiveness of the whole system depends on the efficient functioning of each component.
2. The system is composed of three components: police, court, and corrections.
Курс 6 семестр.
Контрольная работа №6.
Translate from Russian into English.
Переведите с русского на английский язык.
1. Если бы полиция прибыла на место преступления раньше, она бы успела опросить всех свидетелей.
2. Как бы я хотел быть хорошим адвокатом.
3. Если бы он знал, что это вас расстроит, он был бы осторожнее.
4. Жаль, что он отказался принять участие в процессе.
Change the sentences using Passive Voice.
Измените предложения, используя Passive Voice.
1. Two members from each state elected for a term of six years compose the Senate.
2. They have built excellent shelters for tourists in these mountains.
3. She has told us a lot of interesting things.
4. The district courts try most of the criminal and civil cases.
5. We received a paper from the court.
6. During the election campaign Reigan and his party spent much money in order to become the President of the USA.
7. They often speak about him.
Use the verbs in the correct tense forms.
Поставьте глаголы в скобках в правильную форму.
1. When we (to come) to the station, our train already (to leave), and we (to have) to wait for two hours before another one (to come).
2. I was anxious to see the place where I (to spend) my childhood.
3. Victor asked me to explain the new rule to him, as he (to miss) the previous lesson.
4. I didn’t recognize Helen as I (not to see) her for a very long time and she greatly (to change).
5. Jane usually works in the library. She (to work) there now. She already (to gather) the necessary material and now she (to write) her report.
6. On entering the drawing room he (to find) that his two friends (to get) up and (to wait) for him.
7. It was very late. I (to go) to bed and (to fall) asleep when my father (to return) home.
Translate from Russian into English.
Переведите на английский язык.
1. Он сказал, что не знает, когда начнется конференция.
2. Ученый был уверен, что найдет решение проблемы.
3. Мы боялись, что не купим билеты в театр.
4. Секретарь не заметил, что директор с кем-то разговаривает.
5. Он сказал мне вчера, что раньше он учился в университете.
6. Мы решили на прошлой неделе, что будущим летом мы все поедем в Крым.
Put the sentences from direct into indirect speech.
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