Мегаобучалка Главная | О нас | Обратная связь  


He went to London University




Here it is assumed that he graduated.

 

(ученая) степень

Higher degree is the best translation.

Cтепень кандидата наук and кандидат наук are as a rule best translated literally as: degree of candidate of sciences or candidate's degree (less formal) and candidate of sciences.

Since these terms do not exist in English, and the word candidate has a more general meaning (that of a person applying for a job or position, or taking an examination), it will be necessary in many cases to explain to English people that a Russian candidate's degree is approximately equiva­lent to an English PhD (or doctorate). It may be justified in some cases, for example, when talking to English or American visitors, to use the word doctorate and doctorfor convenience. However, if there are people present with the degree of доктор наук, such use will obscure the difference between the two Russian degrees.

When using the literal translation candidate of sciences, it may be necessary to explain also that science does not refer to the sciences in the modern English sense.

Cтепень доктора наук and доктор наук can be translated as: degree of doctor or doctorate anddoctor (of sciences). However, it should be explained that this is not the same as an English or American doctorate, but that it is a more advanced degree, awarded for a thesis.

When translating the names of particular degrees, it seems on the whole preferable to omit the word science, although it is not necessarily incorrect to include it.

Кандидат/доктор филологических наук - candidate / doctor of philology

The literal translation philologyis preferable here to artsor any of the other words discussed in connection with the translation of филологический факультет. Neither candidate/doctor of artsnorcandidate/doctor of languages and literature are English terms, and in any case the wordscandidate and doctorare themselves literal translations here. However, candidate/doctor of philology will mean nothing to an English person unfamiliar with the Russian system unless some explanation is given.



Кандидат / доктор философских наук — candidate / doctor of philosophy

It may be necessary to explain that doctor of philosophy is not the same as the English degree of that name.

Кандидат / доктор психологических наук — candid ate / doctor of psychology

Кандидат / доктор педагогических наук— candidate/doctor of education

Pedagogical science or pedagogicsis possible, although very learned, and not so easily understood.

Кандидат / доктор экономических наук — candidate/doctor of economics

Кандидат / доктор юридических наук — candidate/doctor of law

The names of the other degrees can be translated in a similar way.

 

Диссертация

The usual British English equivalent is thesis, which is applied to both the Master's degree and the doctorate. Dissertation is used either as a general term, to denote any extended written treatment of a subject, or more specifically, to denote something of a lower academic standard than a thesis, for example, what students write for graduation in some institutions.

In American English, however, dissertation is used for a doctorate, whereasthesisdenotes something of a lower standard, for example, for a Master's degree.

Защита диссертации, защищать диссертацию

It should be noted that there is nothing of this kind in England, although the oral (examination) or vivafulfills basically the same function.Defend and defensecan be used as translations, so long as one bears in mind that they are not real equivalents. In some cases one can avoid the difficulty by re-phrasing the sentence.

 

В 2001 году он защитил кандидатскую/докторскую

Диссертацию.

In 2001 he was awarded his candidate's/doctor's degree.

 

Research

The most detailed definition of this word is given by Webster: "studious inquiry or examination, esp. investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws."

In higher educational establishments researchis often contrasted withteaching.

 

A. The job combines teaching and research.

Поможем в ✍️ написании учебной работы
Поможем с курсовой, контрольной, дипломной, рефератом, отчетом по практике, научно-исследовательской и любой другой работой



Читайте также:
Как вы ведете себя при стрессе?: Вы можете самостоятельно управлять стрессом! Каждый из нас имеет право и возможность уменьшить его воздействие на нас...
Модели организации как закрытой, открытой, частично открытой системы: Закрытая система имеет жесткие фиксированные границы, ее действия относительно независимы...
Как распознать напряжение: Говоря о мышечном напряжении, мы в первую очередь имеем в виду мускулы, прикрепленные к костям ...



©2015-2020 megaobuchalka.ru Все материалы представленные на сайте исключительно с целью ознакомления читателями и не преследуют коммерческих целей или нарушение авторских прав. (531)

Почему 1285321 студент выбрали МегаОбучалку...

Система поиска информации

Мобильная версия сайта

Удобная навигация

Нет шокирующей рекламы



(0.005 сек.)
Поможем в написании
> Курсовые, контрольные, дипломные и другие работы со скидкой до 25%
3 569 лучших специалисов, готовы оказать помощь 24/7