ТЕМА: СПЕЦИАЛЬНОСТЬ И НАУЧНАЯ РАБОТА
Третьим вопросом кандидатского экзамена является беседа с экзаменаторами на иностранном языке по вопросам, связанным со специальностью и научной работой аспиранта / соискателя.
В качестве начала беседы с экзаменаторами рекомендуется подготовить монологическое высказывание, в котором аспирант/соискатель представит себя, расскажет о своем образовании. Целесообразно назвать тему диссертации, проблемы, которые анализируются в исследовании, назвать научного руководителя. Приблизительно фрагменты такого текста могут выглядеть следующим образом:
I. Let me tell some words about myself and my scientific research. My full name is... I graduated from …. last year. I studied at the Economic Faculty.
When I was a student I got interested in the scientific research work. That’s why after the University I made up my mind to take up a post-graduate course at the Economic and Management Department.
The approximate theme of my thesis is «The Status of Joint Venture in the economy of the transitional period». This problem is of great theoretical and practical value. We are to deal with the following points:
socio-economic nature of a joint venture;
peculiarities of joint venture functioning in the transitional period;
joint venture classification in Russia, etc.
I carry out my investigations under the guidance of Doctor of Economy, Professor... He is a well-known specialist in his/her domain. He has a lot of scientific works.
As for me I have two articles published.
There’s mush to be done and I try to do my best to continue research and submit my thesis to public hearing in due time.
II. I graduated from the economic faculty of … . My speciality is economic mathematics. Now I work as an assistant lecturer. I teach the following subjects: the theory of risk, insurance, the system of decision making in economics.
When I was a student of the university I began to carry out my research work. Later my scientific interests brought me to a post-graduate course in … . Last year I became a post-graduate. The theme of my dissertation is "Insurance in the system of economic relations".
I have already begun my research. I often work in the libraries of … and Moscow, use Internet information. I have two articles published.
There's much to be done and I continue to work on my dissertation.
III. My name is N.N. I’m a part-time (full-time) post-graduate student (an applicant) of ….. . I combine my everyday activities with research work. I graduated from the university in 2002. I studied at the Mechanical faculty in speciality “Machines and Apparatuses of food productions”.
After graduation I worked at …. as a mechanics engineer. Now I am working as an engineer at the chair of physical and colloidal chemistry.
I am carrying out research on the problem concerned with the study of vapour-liquid equilibrium in some systems of alcohol production.
The major subject of my research is the investigation of physico-chemical properties of some mixtures containing ethanol, water, acetone, butanol and other organic substances, and so the determination of phase equilibrium data in the systems. So far the problem has not been studied. On the basis of data to be obtained new rectification apparatuses will be designed.
I have three essays printed in the Proceedings of different conferences. My co-authors are A. and B.
I passed my Master’s degree examination in Philosophy last month. My scientific supervisor is Professor Doctor of Technical Sciences V.M. He got his academic degree with doctoral dissertation dealing with vapour and liquid equilibrium. He has a lot of publications in different periodicals. I hope to defend my thesis in due time.
IV. My friend is a full-time post-graduate student of … . His name is I.V. He studied at the Mechanical faculty. The speciality he chose was mechanical engineer. After graduation from the university he worked at the research laboratory as an engineer. For nine years he was working at the Research Institution of Semiconductors Engineering as a designer.
Now he is taking a post-graduate training course. He gets a scholarship.
The major topic of his research is membrane technology. He doubts it will find a wide application in food industry. He is working on the problem of designing a pilot installation and studying Russian and English literature.
He has some essays published in periodicals and some author certificates for the inventions. He passed his Master’s degree examination in Philosophy last week. He is going to take his Master’s degree examination in special subject in two years. He is doing his research under the guidance of professor S.L. He is a well-known specialist in this domain. My friend will try to submit his thesis to public hearing in three years
Рекомендуем также ряд слов, выражений и речевых клише, которые помогут подготовиться к данной теме.
To graduate from - окончить высшее учебное заведение;
To graduate in economics - окончить эконом. факультет;
A full-time (a part-time) post-graduate - аспирант-очник (заочник);
An applicant - соискатель;
To take / have a post-graduate course - учиться в аспирантуре;
To carry out (conduct) research in the field of... - проводить исследования в области...
To be published in the Proceedings of the Conference - быть напечатанным в сборнике материалов конференции;
To work at one’s thesis (dissertation) under the guidance (supervision) of ... - работать над диссертацией под руководством...
To work in collaboration with... - работать совместно с...
To submit one’s thesis to public hearing in due time - представить диссертацию к защите в срок;
To survey modern literature on the problem - делать обзор современной литературы по проблеме;
The problem arises in connection with... - эта проблема встает в связи с...
We turn our attention to a new and more urgent problem. - Мы обращаем внимание на новую и более насущную проблему.
The problem of studying ... demands special care in using... - Проблема изучения... требует особого внимания к использованию...
We shall touch upon a question of...- мы коснемся вопроса...
The core of the problem is... - Суть проблемы заключается...
It would be instructive to examine in detail... - Было бы полезно детально изучить...
The object of our investigations is... - объектом нашего исследования является...
...is the subject of our research - ... является предметом нашего исследования.
We are engaged in the study of... - Мы занимаемся изучением...
We shall make a thorough study of...- мы подвергнем тщательному изучению...
The aim of the paper is...- Цель данной работы заключается...
In the framework of... the first objective to achieve is... - В рамках... основной целью является...
The purpose of my work is to examine and investigate... - Цель моей работы заключается в изучении и исследовании...
The primary task is to study... - Первоочередной задачей является изучение...
The conventional approach to this problem is based on... - Обычный подход к этой проблеме основан на...
We shall turn to another trend. - Мы обратимся к другому направлению.
It is worth analyzing precisely... - Стоит тщательно проанализировать...
One of the most promising problems is believed to deal with... - Считается, что одной из наиболее перспективных проблем является...
The problem became more acute, it took a new form. - Проблема стала более острой, она приобрела новую форму.
It seems essential to emphasize that... - Представляется важным отметить, что...
So far we have discussed... - До сих пор мы обсуждали...
It provides a basis for - Это служит основой...
For (at) the moment... - В настоящий момент...
We are intended to conclude that... - Мы намерены заключить...
To sum up it should be noted that... - Подводя итог, следует отметить, что...
Degree of candidate of sciences; candidate's degree (less formal)— степень кандидата наук;
Thesis— диссертация (иногда употребляется "dissertation",хотя в Великобритании это работа меньшей значимости);
To do academic work / research— / выполнять научную работу / исследование;
To devote oneself to academic / research work — посвятить себя науке;
A branch of knowledge — отрасль науки;
An academic work — научный труд;
An academic approach — научный подход;
A research worker / a researcher— научный работник.
Мы также предлагаем серию упражнений, которые помогут подготовиться к беседе по вопросам специальности и избранного научного направления.
Exercise I. Read and translate the definitions of the following words:
1) (the study of) knowledge which can be made into a system and which usually depends on seeing and testing facts and stating general laws: It was one of the great discoveries in science. Science cannot answer all our questions; 2) a branch of such knowledge. Especially: a) anything which may be studied exactly: Driving a car is an art, not a science. b) any of the branches usually studied at universities, such as Physics, Economics, etc.: She was studying a science subject.
Different adjectives relating to science may be used with this word:
pure (of a science or a branch of any study) — considered only for its own nature as a skill or exercise of the mind, separate from any use that might be made of it;
applied (science) — put to practical use;
practical (science) — related to actual experience or need;
theoretical belonging to theory (= general laws and principles of science or a science).
Scientist— a person who carries out new work in a science (physics, economics, etc.)
Scientific— of, being, or concerning science or its principles or rules: She had a scientific education. This is a fine piece of scientific writing. The scientific spirit has an interest in exact-ness.
Scholar— a person who knows much in a particular field of knowledge (refers mainly, though not exclusively, to the humanities);
Work— 1) activity which uses effort, especially with a special purpose, not for amusement: It takes a lot of-work to do a research. 2) a job or occupation: His work is in economics, he is an economist. 3) what one is doing, especially for payment: / hear you 've changed jobs; is work difficult at the new place ? I am taking some work home to do this evening. 4) what is produced by work: This picture is my own work.
It's useful to know whatadjectives may be usedrelating to work:
Laborious—1) requiring great effort: This is a very laborious work; 2) showing signs of being done with difficulty: He has a laborious style of writing.
Hard-working— working hard: She is a hard-working researcher.
Industrious— hard-working: What industrious people they are.
Demanding— that needs a lot of attention or effort: A new job may be very demanding.
Strenuous— 1) taking great effort;needing a lot of work: It's being a strenuous day.2) showing great activity; She is a strenuous supporter of women's rights.
Diligent— (of people and behaviour) hard-working; showing steady effort: He is a diligent worker and deserves more pay. He made a diligent attempt to learn Russian.
Painstaking— 1) careful and thorough: Producing a dictionary is painstaking work. 2) hard-working and thorough: He is not very clever but he is painstaking; he works hard.
Exercise II. Answer the questions:
1. What are the tendences in the science development at present?
2. What scientific discovery of recent years seems most chal
3. What important scientific discoveries may we face in the
4. We are apt to believe that research has always been the
5. Do you think there can be valid reasons for suspending
6. Do you think that scientific work of any kind can itself
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