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Another form of the predicate

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(to be + Adj).

1. Translate the sentences

1. Agricultureis the sector mostlikely to be affected by changes in climate of all sectors of society,"

2. The program is certain to be very expensive, with a total cost running into hundreds of billions of pounds.

3.Survival of the fittest can describe how many offsprings certain spices are likely to leave under given circumstances.

4. In 1610 Galileo discovered what turned out to be Saturn’s most amazing feature, the rings


Simple vs. Perfect Infinitive

1. Study the structure of the sentences.

1. We might just occupy the rare universe where the right conditions happen to have come together to make life possible.

2. Plank seems to have imagined that some deeper explanations of these quanta would emerge.

3. The Egyptian cubit is generally recognized to have been the most widespread unit of linear measurement in the ancient world.

4. Despite being a major member of the EU, Great Britain is not part of euro zone, and the question of whether it will join any time appears to have receded for the moment.

5. The quark soup itself is thought to have arisen at an extremely early time — perhaps 10.4 second after the big bang in a burst of cosmic expansion known as inflation.



2. Answer the questions.

1. Do the predicates in the sentences above refer to past or to present time?

2. Does the infinitive part refer to the same time?

3. Which of them took place earlier?



3. Work out the rule for use of the Perfect Infinitive in the Complex Object.


Simple vs. Continuous Infinitive

1. Study the predicates in the following sentences.

1. So far itseems to be working.

2. The universe appearsto be expanding at an accelerating rate, implying the existence of a strange new form of energy – dark energy.

3. As this material disappears into the black hole it is reckoned to be emitting a stream of X-rays, and these are what astronomers are observing.

4. Now we’ve got nearly instantaneous climatic change within a century, and that instantaneous change seems to be accelerating.


2. Answer the questions.


1. Do the events of the subject and the Infinitive take place at the same time?

2. How does the Continuous Infinitive influence the meaning of a sentence?



Another variant of the construction

(the verbto beomitted)

1. It hasproved (to be) extremely difficult to give robots the capabilities

that humans take for granted.

2. Heron of Alexandria is considered the greatest experimenter of antiquity and his work is representative of the Hellenistic scientific tradition.

3. Ten years ago, with magnetic-disk technology seemingly reaching its maximum potential, holographic data storage seemed destined for the centre stage.



Part II


1. Translate the following.


1. One of the genes that appears to differ between smokers who give up and those who cannot is called cadherin13, which produces the substance known to be involved in controlling how nerve cells in the brain stick together.

2. Another of the genes involved in smoking addictiveness is known to play a role in controlling how people respond to stress.

3. This was the fact that a stream of rays,thought to be formed from tiny particles, flowed from the cathode.

4. The planet is thought to hold deposits of oxygen and hydrogen, which could be extracted to provide the station with resources that would not then have to be ferried from Earth.

5. Nanotechnology seems likely to make possible some form of this by linking neural structures via transducers and electromagnetic signals. .

6. Plank seems to have imagined that some deeper explanation of these quanta would emerge.

7. Leonardo da Vinci’s 1495 sketch of a mechanical knight, which could sit up and move its arms and legs, is considered to be the first plan for a humanoid robot.

8. The quark soup itself is thought to have arisen at an extremely early time—perhaps 10 ,4 second after the big bang in a burst of cosmic expansion known as inflation.

9. High-velocity clouds of relatively unpopulated hydrogen appear to be running down from intergalactic space, rejuvenating our galaxy.

10. In the first century A.D., Heron of Alexandria designed intriguing automatons, including the one said to have the ability to talk.

11. The program is certain to be very expensive, with a total cost running into hundreds of billions of pounds.

12. Our action will then be seen to have been inevitable.

13. Bell’s proof and Aspect’s experiment meant the world itself had been discovered to be nonlocal.

14. High- velocity clouds of relatively unpopulated hydrogen appear to be running down from intergalactic space, rejuvenating our galaxy.

15. According to this ”anthropic” reasoning, we might just occupy the rare universe where conditionshappen to have come together to make it possible.

16. Science could no longer be expected to predict with certainty the outcome of experiments.

17. The laws of physics might seem to be finely tuned. .

18.Our action will then be seen to have been inevitable

19. If more general systems are likely to emerge, we would be foolish to omit them from our calculations.


2. Write English equivalents(use the construction discussed).


Известно, что атомы…

Оказывается, электроны…

Считается, что материя…

По-видимому, вселенная…


3. Develop the phrases in 2 into complete sentences.

4. Write several similar sentences that refer to your specialization.

5. Read the sentence.

America was discovered by Columbus.


Can we say that this statement is absolutely true?

To make this statement less certain we say:

Americais believed to be discoveredby Columbus,or

Americais doubted /questioned to be discoveredby Columbus.



Writing a paper

1. Write about some facts that don’t seem as certain as they used to be.


2. Write about some facts which you haven’t checked, but they are generally accepted.

Ex: Matter is believed to consist of atoms.


3. Remember some facts from your field of specialization that should be better addressed using the discussed construction. Write a short paragraph (5–7 sentences).

Part III



1. Read the following.

The brightest member galaxies of rich clusters have been detected at distances exceeding several thousand million light-years from the Earth. The branch of learning that deals with phenomena at the scale ofmany millions of light-years is called cosmology. Cosmology is, in effect, the study of the universe at large. A dramatic new feature, not present on small scales, emerges when the universe is viewed in the large- namely, the cosmological expansion.

On cosmological scales, galaxies appear to be racing away from one another with the apparent velocity of recession being linearly proportional to the distance of the object.


The Hubble law implies that roughly 10 years ago all of the matter in the Universe was closely packed together in an incredibly dense state and that everything then exploded in a “big bang”, the signature of the explosion being written eventually in the galaxies of stars that formed out of the expanding debris of matter.



2. Find Russian equivalents of the underlined words.



3. Compare.

а) Million vs. Millions:

4 million - a numeral (does not have the plural form),

millionsof - a noun (has the plural form).

b) On small scalesvs. at the scale of:

On small scales – в масштабе,

At the scale of – исчисляемые, в исчислении.


c) Аt largevs.in the large:

At large – в общем смысле,

In the large – в большом масштабе.


4. Translate the sentences.


1. At that time computers cost millions of dollars.

2. In the 1970s a new model of a computer could cost from 2 to 4million dollars.

3. New research shows how the ion-trap method could be applied on a larger scale.

4. It has allowed us to extrapolate from what we see in our own cosmic neighborhood to the universe at large.

5. The quantum universe at large is well described by the classical geometry.


5. Find Russian equivalents of other parts of the text in bold.





Part I



1. Read the text paying attention to the parts in bold.


Cosmic expansion provides the narrative for understanding how today's universe came to be. As cosmologists imagine rewinding the clock, the universe becomes denser, hotter, more extreme and simpler. In exploring the beginning, we also probe the inner workings of nature by taking advantage of an accelerator more powerful than any built on Earth — the big bang itself. By looking out into space with telescopes, astronomers peer back in time — and the larger the telescope, the farther back they peer. The light from distant galaxies reveals anearlier epoch, and the amount this light has redshifted indicates how much the universe has grown in the intervening years. The current record holder has a redshift of about eight, representing a time when the universe was one-ninth its present size and only a few hundred million years old.


2. Answer the questions.

1. How are Comparative and Superlative degrees of adjectives and adverbs formed (two models)?

2. Can we choose the model we like best in each particular case?

3. When is each of the models used?

Part two



1. Read the passages attentively.



The sixth planet from the sun, Saturn formed more than four billion years ago. With a diameter of 120,536 kilometers (almost 75,000 miles) it is the second largest planet in the solar system. While almost as big in size as Jupiter, Saturn's density is the lowest in the solar system and its mass only 30 percent that of Jupiter. Saturn's specific gravity (0.7) is less than that of water. In fact, Saturn's density is so low that it could float in an imaginary gigantic bathtub.

Like Jupiter, Saturn is made up mainly of hydrogen and helium gases. However, it is twice asfar from Earth as Jupiter, and from Saturn the Sun appears about 10 times smaller than how we see it from Earth. On average, an area on Earth receives 90 times the amount of sunlight than the same area would on Saturn. Scientists believe Saturn's interior is similar to Jupiter's, consisting of a rocky core much like the size of Earth, a liquid metallic hydrogen layer and a molecular hydrogen layer. Traces of various ices are also present. Saturn's interior is hot. At the core, the temperature is about 12,000 degrees Kelvin (21,150 degrees Fahrenheit). Saturn radiates moreenergy into space than it receives from the Sun.


The discussed theory is far from perfect. Diego Bias, a quantum gravity researcher at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL) in Lausanne has found a "hidden sickness" in the theory when double-checking calculations for the solar system. Most physicists examined ideal cases, assuming, for instance, that Earth and the Sun are spheres, Bias explains: "We checked the more realistic case, where the sun is almost a sphere, but not quite." General relativity pretty much gives the same answer in both the scenarios. But in Hofava gravity, the realistic case gives a wildly different result.



The first is the extent to which the tube is emptied of air and gas. The fewer the molecules of gas remaining in the tube the less the electrons are interpreted by collisions. The second factor is the voltage, or electrical pressure applied to the tube. The higher the voltage, the greater the impulse given to the stream of electrons striking the target.

2.Find in the passages above the English equivalents for the following.

· Больше чем; меньше чем; вторая по величине; вдвое дальше; самая низкая; такая же большая; почти сопоставимое по размеру; составляет всего 30% от; далеко не совершенна; не вполне; совсем другой результат; чем…, тем больше; чем…, тем меньше; подобно Юпитеру; в среднем; аналогично; примерно; дает во многом схожий ответ; то, насколько.

2. Translate the following sentences.

1. Processors are now three times faster than had been predicted in the early 1980s.

2. Silicon wafers today are much larger but hold only about half as many chips as did those of the original microprocessor, the Intel.

3. The larger theredshift, the smaller the universe was when the supernova occurred and hence the more the universe has expanded between then and now.

4. The new material is remarkably strong and tight: it has three times the tensile strength of aluminum, yet it is 2.6 times lighter.

5. The supply of lithium is more limited than that of deuterium, but still large enough to supply the world’s energy demand for thousands of years.

6. The neutron flux expected on a commercial D-T fusion reactor is about 100 times that of current fusion power reactors.

7. The price to pay compared to D-T is that the energy confinement must be 30 times better and the power produced is 68 times less.

8. Magnetars have a magnitude field of about 100 gigateslas, roughly a thousand times stronger than the field of normal stars. This is strong enough to erase a credit card on Earth from half the distance of the Moon’s orbit.

9. Like other forms of high - energy radiation, X-rays can be hazardous, but they can also be very beneficial.

10. X-rays can also be used for inspecting the insides of articles as different as fountain pens and electrical appliances to make sure that they have been put together properly.

12. The fewer the molecules of gas remaining in the tube, the less electrons are interrupted by collisions.

13. The higher the voltage, the greater the impulse given to electrons striking the target.

14. The better your knew the state the better you could predict the behavior.

15. The form, design and implementation of CPUs changed dramatically since the earliest examples, but their fundamental operation has remained much the same.

16.Factoring in climate change will boost wheat prices by at least 170 percent and rice by a minimum of 113 percent.

17. Rather than labeling species as more or less fit, one can describe how many offspring theyare likely to leave under given circumstances.

18. A holographic-technology company is marketing a disk that is similar in size to a standard CD but can store 200 gigabytes – a 200-fold improvement on optical CD technology.

19. Serious scientific publications disputing evolution are all but nonexistent.

20. Opening up the inside of a material for storage, rather than just using its surface, yields huge improvements in capacity.

21 The thermal chimney works like a regular fireplace chimney, except that it is use to push hot air out of the house.

22. Why do some innovations fall so far short ofwhat is expected of them, whereas others succeed brilliantly?

23. The neutralino is thought to have a mass between 100 and 1,000 times that of the proton, just within the reach of experiments to be conducted by the Large Hadron Collider at CERN near Geneva.

24. A second candidate is the axion, a superlight-weight particle about a trillionth the mass of the electron.

25. Scientists in US have shown how networks of artificial neurons containing two Josephson Junctions would outpace traditional computer-simulated brains by many orders of magnitude.

26. The rechargeable lithium-ion batteries common in everything from iPods to cell phones to laptops can store twice the energy of similarly sized nickel-metal hydride batteries and up to six times as much as their lead-acid progenitors.


3. Study the sentences above.

Find all the examples where the compared entities are:

a) equal

b) n-times greater.


4. Make sentences.


a) Ex: The researchers are prepared enough to conduct such an experiment.


The … is large to V…

new enough not to V…

is not interesting to be + Ved…



b) Ex: The shorter is the distance, the sooner we’ll reach the destination.


The stronger………… the more powerful……...

The longer ………. the greater…….

The more challenging ….. the more attractive……

The fewer…… the less/more…….


5. Write down 5 sentences following the models a), b) in 4.



Part III


1. Read the following.


Although it seems almost counterintuitive to use water, and warm water at that, to cool the inside of an electronic device, IBM’s work highlights a trend to use liquid cooling in devices other than mainframes.

*The transistors inside a computer’s microprocessors can be as small as 45 nanometers – roughly five times the thickness of a cell membrane – making it difficult to control the electric currents that leak. Microprocessors can dissipate anywhere from 100 watts to several hundred watts each out of this transistors. Such leakage can consume more power than the actual computational process.

The IBM executiveacknowledges that cooler processors are able to run faster andlast longer, but he points out that the challenge he and his colleagues are looking to address at this stage is a way to cut electricity consumption.*


1. Think of the best way to translate the words and word combinationsin bold.

2. Write the translation of the part, marked with the asterisks(*).



3. Translate the following sentences.


1. Opening up the inside of a material for storage, rather than just using its surface, yields huge improvements in capacity.

2. A different type of supernova — the thermonuclear explosion of a star triggered by accretion, rather than by gravitational collapse — would still take place.

3. It could operate on pairs of lists of numbers rather than on mere pairs of numbers.

4. That is, rather than labeling species as more or less tit. one can describe how many offspring they are likely to leave under given circumstances.

5. The historical nature of macroevolutionary study involves inference from fossils and DNArather than direct observation.

4. Make phrases and write sentences with the resultant word combinations.


Rather than increase by n% …

decrease by a factor of n …

fall n-fold…

rise n-times…


1. Assuring adequate security in cyberspace is one of the most challengingproblems we face as we try to leverage the Internet’s power to increase productivity and provide competitive advantage.

2. Today, for example, voice-recognition programs can identify words quite well, but a far greater challenge will be building machines that can understand what those words mean in context.

3. That claim was challenged by Henry Markram, who announced in 2009: “It is not impossible to build a human brain and we can do it in 10 years”

4. The long-term challengeis dealing with the actinides, materials created when uranium absorbs a neutron but refuses to split apart.


5. Read the paragraph.


Growth in information technology is particularly rapid: we're doubling its power, as measuredby price-performance, bandwidth, capacity and many other measures, every year or so. That's a factor of a thousand in 10 years, a million in 20 years, and a billion in 30 years, although a slow, second level of exponential growth means that a billion-fold improvement takes only about a quarter of a century.


6. Write 3 sentences with the word combination a factor of.


7. Look up in a dictionary the meaning.



а) as a verb,

b) as an adjective.



Look like.

8. Translate the sentences.


1. Like other forms of high - energy radiation, X-rays can be hazardous, but they can also be very beneficial.

2. It is quite possible that a wide range of other "weakless" universes exist that are habitable but look nothing likeour own.

3. They were based on erroneous principles, like the perpetual motion machines that vex patent offices.

4. Personal computers looked like mere curiosities for hobbyists for many years.

5. These are identified as the arithmetic logic unit, the control unit, the memory, and the input-output devices that we see in the classical model of what a computer "looks like."

6.Unlike digital gates that can only take 0s and 1s as input and output 0s and 1s, Lyric's gate circuits cantake inputs that are between 0s and 1s such as 0.7 or 0.234.

7. The mind schema, or our psychological sense of self, coordinates the many independent neural networks that simultaneously work away at problems in daily living so that we feel likea single mind.

8. The survey found that men are almost twice as likely as women to pause or hesitate while speaking.

9. I think it’s highly likely that as a result of any climate intervention there will be winners and losers.

10. Although the liar is less likely to wave his hands about in the air, he is more likely to use them in other ways.

11. This loss of ozone looks like it might be more in springtime and more in northern latitudes.


Writing a paper

1. Write a paragraph dealing with your research work. Try to use as many vocabulary and grammar structures from this lesson as you can.


Complex object

Part I


1. Read the text paying attention to the parts in bold.


The ever-increasing shortage of fossil fuels, rising gasoline prices, and global warming are causing people and governments to look with greater interest at renewable resources as a viable and more "earth-friendly" option to the energy problem.

The use of solar energy as a power source is not a new one. Perhaps the greatest advancement in Photovoltaic research has been thin cell solar research, or nanotechnology. This is the use of very tiny cells created through silicon and other minerals to collect solar energy. The creation of nanoparticles has allowed developers to create shingles coated in these cells as well as to develop a spray-on coating that can be sprayed onto another material, such as the roof of a building. This spray-on coating contains the nanoparticles and enables other items toalsocollect solar energy and convert it into electricity.

Solar collectors do not have tobe placed on the roof of the building for which they are intended to be used. They can be placed anywhere where they will be able to get the maximum amount of daylight.,. One of the most interesting parts of emerging solar technology is a tracking system design, which allows the panels to tilt and follow the sun as it travels across the sky, much as a sunflower does.


2. Answer the question.


1. What parts does the discussed construction consist of?


3. Mind the position of a noun/pronoun between the verb and the Infinitive.


4. Note that this construction should be often translated into Russian using the object clause.


5. Remember the following.


Pronouns used within the Complex Object:


me us

you you

him/her/it them


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