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Having Ved/V3 vs. after/on Ving

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1. Note that you can express the same idea in two different ways.


1. Having considered the multiple-terminal case, Buttiker proposed that a two-terminal resistance must always contain a contact resistance, even if the wire is ballistic.

2. On landing in 2004, the Mars rovers Spirit and Opportunity have had little trouble driving miles around their landing sites.


2. Translate the sentences.


1.Having worked out a way to use bouncing atoms to do atom interferometry, the teem plans to reduce the number of atoms that are lost in the experiment.

2.After revealing that the attacks targeted not only its core intellectual property but e-mail accounts of Chinese human-rights activists, Google announced that it would stop censoring search results on its Chinese-language engine.

3. Having designed their most efficient prototype, the scientists detailed their findings online.

4. After demonstrating the performance of the new device in rats they see no reason why they cannot work in people as well.

5. They have to release CO2 to the atmosphere despite having attached idry-adsorption technology to capture it


Participle constructions

1. Read the sentence and its example translation.


The end products emittingenough gamma rays to make the fuel dangerous to handle and easy to track, the process has added benefit of being resistant to nuclear proliferation.


Гамма-излучение конечных продуктов оказывается достаточным для того, чтобы с этим топливом стало опасно работать, однако это дает и определенные преимущества: его легко обнаружить, что создает препятствие к его дальнейшему распространению.


2. Translate the sentences.


1. The world freshwater supplybecoming scarcer, salt-tolerant crops could ease the burden.

2. Researches at Australia’s University of Adelaide used genetic engineering to enhance a model crop’s natural ability to prevent saline buildup in the leaves, allowing the plant to thrive in conditions that would typically wither it.

3. A program or “instruction table” for a Turing machine is a finite collection of instructions, each calling for certain atomic operations to be performed if certain conditions are met.

4. Assuming that no new forces of nature intervene, horizons should be governed purely by general relativity.

5. For two clocks moving inertially relative to one another, this effect is reciprocal, with each clockmeasuring the other to be ticking slower.

6. With greenhouse gas emissions continuingto rise, strong efforts will be required to reverse global warming.

7. Assuming a world that is slow to adapt to climate change and focused on regional self- reliance, the researchers found that children in the developing world—which are the countries expected to provide the bulk of population growth to nine billion or more by mid-century – will be hardest hit.

Part II


Translate the sentences.


1. Science is incapable of makingvalue judgments.

2. Loll, a professor at Utrecht University, enjoys playing chamber music.

3. That was encouragingbut not yet the same as showing that these rules are enough to stabilize a full four-dimensional universe.

4. Instead of disregarding causality when assembling individual universes and hoping for it to reappear through the collective wisdom of the superposition, we decided to incorporate the casual structure at a much earlier stage.

5. Good security hygiene is worth pursuing, but it cannot be information security’s primary goal.

6. We are far from understanding how to effectively engineer systems that deliver adequate trust to users.

7. Experts arevery bad at predicting the future.

8.The idea of controlling the function of a computing machine by storing a program was Turing’s greatest contribution to the development of the digital computer.

9. Emissions and global temperatures keep going up and up and up.

10. Despite their shielding power, such materials won’t do for building a spaceship.

11. Major retailers have introduced this technique in recent years with an eye to saving billions on inventory and labor cost.

12.Rather than passively listening to music, the researcher advocates putting an instrument into the hands of a youngster to raise intelligence.

13. Benjamin Franklin is credited with conceiving the idea of daylight saving in 1794 to conserve candles.

14. It becomes possible to envisage development of implantable robots capable of compensating for failing functions in human beings.

15.Imagine being present at the birth of a new industry.

16. The access to cheap computing power has permitted scientists to work on many of the hard

problems that are fundamental to making robots practical.

17. Our recent studies, however, suggest that some of these other universes – assuming they exist – may not be so inhospitable after all.

18. You can examine the data in different ways, on different timescales and for awide variety of technologies, ranging from electronicto biological.

19. Spam filters, search engines and even genome sequence analysis applications are simultaneously checking alternatives, computing their probabilities and choosing those options that have the greatestlikelihood of being correct.

20. Besides being a well-known scientist he has a reputation of an accomplished Thi cook – a claim that the editors look forward to evaluating firsthand.


Writing a paper

1. Write a paragraph (8–10) sentences.

Use word combinations in bold from the exercise above.


Part III



1. Read the paragraph.


These days not even many politi­cians deny that the oceans are ill. Protecting the health of coastal waters is now a matter of national policy in dozens of countries and world leaders are beginning to pre­scribe a revolutionary remedy that conser­vationists have been promoting for years: marine planning and zoning.

The idea is a natural extension of man­agement policies that have guided the de­velopment of cities and landscapes for nearly a century. Zoning advocatesenvision a mo­saic of regional maps in which every wa­tery space on the planet is designated for a particular purpose. Drilling and mining would be allowed only in certain parts of the ocean; fishing in others. The most crit­ically threatened areas would be virtually off-limits.

Whereas people can easily find maps telling them what they can do where on land, the marine realm is a hodgepodge of rules emanating from an army of agencies, each one managing a single use or symp­tom. In the U.S., for example, some 20 fed­eral agencies tend to make de­cisions without regard to what the others are doing. Imagine all of the medical specialists visiting a pa­tient in intensive care one at a time and never talking to one another. It's a wonder that the oceans aren't in worse shape than they are now.


2. Find Russian equivalents of the underlined parts.


3. Translate the text above.




Время и времена


Различные формы глагола в английском языке называются временами.

В английском языке принято различать двенадцать временных форм, большинство из которых имеют также пассивную форму.

Английские временные формы включают два значимых элемента: time (время) и aspect (вид).




Simple I study

Continuous I am studying

Perfect I have studied

Perfect Continuous I have been studying



Simple I studied

Continuous I was studying

Perfect Ihad studied

Perfect Continuous I had been studying



Simple I will study

Continuous I will be studying

Perfect I will have studied

Perfect Continuous I will have been studying




ПонятиеSimpleподразумевает законченное действие, рассматриваемое в целом.

Здесь мы часто имеем дело с фактами.


Welive in the Universe.

I studied a lot of subject at the University.

I will write a candidate paper on this subject.


Чтобы задать вопрос к предложениям в Present Simple, для третьего лица единственного числа используется вспомогательный глагол does.


Does you experiment refer to computer science?


В остальных лицах и числах данного времени используется глагол do.

Doother post-graduates make the same experiment?

What field of physics do you specialize in?

When do you usuallystart work?


В Past Simple для всех лиц и чисел используется глагол did.

Did you study in University last year?

When did he graduate?


Вопрос к подлежащему задается без вспомогательного глагола.


What makes your think so?

Whoconsulted your about your diploma work?




to be + Ving

1. Формы глагола, относящиеся к группе Continuous (длительных) используются для описания действий, происходящих /происходивших в течение какого-то периода времени.



I know you are doing an English course.


В определенный момент в прошлом:

At that time we were conducting an interesting experiment.


В течение какого-то периода времени:

I’ve been tryingto phone you.


В определенный момент в будущем:

When the lecture is over, we’ll be waitingfor your outside.


2. Мы можем рассматривать ситуацию как:


а) временную,


We’re livingin the countryside while our flat is being decorated.



b) относящуюся к какому-то периоду времени,


At 8 o’clock he was still working in the lab.


c) связанную с изменениями или развитием,


Scientists say that the world climateis changing.

The situation was getting worse every day.


d) незавершенную.


I was workingin the lab when you called.

I’ve been writinga paper on this subject. (but haven’t finished it)



Continuous Infinitive


При употреблении продолженной формы инфинитива в сочетании с модальными глаголами значение последних может меняться.


a)They may be discussingthis question. .

(Возможно, они обсуждают этот вопрос.)


They may discussthis question.

(Они могут обсудить этот вопрос.)


b) He cannot be making such experiment.

(Не может быть, чтобы он проводил такой эксперимент.)


He cannot make such experiment.

(Он не может провести такой эксперимент.)



State Verbs

В английском языке глаголы иногда условно делятся на action verbs (глаголы действия) и state verbs (глаголы состояния).

State verbsкак правило, не употребляютсявContinuous.


Эти глаголы можно подразделить на группы:


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