B) with an equivalent of the modal verb
1. The students were unable to do the work without their teacher’s help. He had to help them. 2. You needn’t take these documents with you. 3. You were to consult the dictionary. 4. He had to work much before he was able to complete his research. 5. You will have to show your research work to your scientific adviser. 6. Nobody was able to understand this mysterious phenomenon. 7. As the student was late he was not allowed to enter the classroom.
Exercise №8. Substitute the equivalents for modal verbs. Translate the sentences:
1. Electronic machines can add, subtract, multiply and divide much quicker than man. 2. The conference on economic problems in Russia must take place next month. 3. You may use these new devices for your research. 4. With the help of this new design the scientist could develop new methods of solving the problem. 5. The student may not leave the lab if his experiment is not over. 6. Most people must work in order to earn their living.
Exercise №9. Put a predicate of the following sentences in Past and Future Simple, change the adverbial modifier of time where it is necessary. Translate the sentences:
1. We must study the fundamentals of economics. 2. These students may work at the computer class from 9 to 12 today. 3. She can use different methods in her research work. 4. The students must explain how the economic system works. 5. Economists must study our everyday life.
Exercise №10. Translate the sentences. Pay attention to the functions of the verbs to be, to have:
1. Studying economics is of great importance for future specialists. 2. Every student is to study economics for some years. 3. The quality of these goods is very high. 4. You will have to do it in time. 5. He was to come there yesterday. 6. The students are not at the auditorium. They are to be at the conference. 7. He had much work to do. He had to work hard to complete it in time. 8. Scientists have developed new methods to solve this problem. They will have to make some reports on it. 9. You want to have a new house. You will have to work hard.
Exercise №11. Make the sentences a) interrogative; b) negative:
1. Students have to know some facts of the economy in which we live. 2. He had to sit up late with this work. 3. You will have to get up very early tomorrow. 4. He had to come to the office at 5 sharp. 5. She will have to do it once over again. 6. These documents have to be filled in. 7. They had to cover the whole distance on foot. 8. We shall have to speak to him about his participation in the conference.
Exercise №12. Translate the sentences. Pay attention to the different ways of expressing obligation:
1. We must explain the work of this system. 2. One should study hard to be a good specialist. 3. This problem is very complex. You have to think it over properly. 4. We ought to say that this phenomenon is worth investigating. 5. We should be prepared for scientific study of management in industry. 6. Laws must serve people. 7. The lecture is to begin at 6 o’clock. We ought to come in time. 8. You were to come to my place yesterday. Why didn’t you do that? 9. He will have to improve his knowledge of English.
Exercise №13. Translate the sentences using the equivalents to be, to have:
1. Мне пришлось сделать эту работу самой. 2. Надеюсь, ему не придётся напоминать вам об этом ещё раз. 3. Тебе приходится давать заказы каждый день? 4. Вы знаете, когда должен прийти директор? 5. Я опаздывала, поэтому мне пришлось взять такси. 6. Тебе не стоит беспокоиться, всё будет хорошо. 7. Вам придётся повторить слова, вы их плохо помните. 8. Мы должны подготовить эти документы сегодня. 9. Она сказала, что он должен придти вечером. 10. Мне никогда не приходилось делать такую сложную работу.
Exercise №14. Translate the sentences using modal verbs and the equivalents:
1.Ты можешь найти наши места? 2. Отсюда ты можешь видеть всё. 3. Можно мне взять твою ручку? Конечно, можно. 4. Она не должна вспоминать об этом. 5. Должен ли он уходить так скоро? 6. Мне следует рассказать ей об этом. 7. Надо ли им тоже приходить? 8. Им не разрешают приходить поздно. 9. Ты сможешь встретить их послезавтра? 10. Я должен остаться здесь на некоторое время. 11. Вам следует научиться расслабляться. 12. Мы вынуждены работать, чтобы зарабатывать на жизнь. 13. Должен он носить униформу? 14. Почему я вынужден повторять это? 15.Это не может быть правдой. 16. Мне нужно помыть посуду сейчас? Я очень спешу.
Discuss the following questions:
1) What are your associations with the word HOME?
2) Have you got any favourite places?
3) Do you like to come back home? Why?
4) What/who do you usually miss when you are far away from home?
There are some definitions of terms “home” and “house”. The explanatory dictionary by Hornby helps us to differentiate these terms. “Home” is the house or flat that you live in, especially with your family, or it is the town, district, country that you come from, or where you are living and that you feel you belong to. The term “house” means a building for people to live in, usually for one family. So, we should remember these words and use them in a right way.
Exercise 1. Read the following text and get ready to answer the questions.
Types of houses
We can hardly say that today there exist the problem of choosing a type of housing. Everyone can find something he or she likes. For instance, some people prefer to live somewhere in the country in a small, but cosy cottage or a large farmhouse. To my mind those people, who prefer this type of dwelling really adore nature. One of advantages living in such a house is that you have your own land where you can grow fruit and vegetables. But the greatest disadvantage of living in a farmhouse or in a cottage, in my opinion, is that it takes much time to get the nearest town, but if you have a car it isn’t a problem for you. That’s why I think over the possibility to live in a cottage when I retire.
There are also those who like semi-detached houses. I believe that such houses attract people because they are less expensive than mansions or bungalowsfor example and you have only one neighbour as opposed to block of flats.
Below I’ve mentioned such a type of housing as a block of flats. I consider that it’s the cheapest type of dwelling in a town. Flats can be of different sizes: one-roomed, two-roomed, three-roomed, so one can choose a flat he/she likes. If you are going to live alone, you can prefer a studio to a large apartment. Besides among advantages of living in a block of flats some people name the fact that it takes less time to tidy up a flat than a house. But as any type of housing a flat has its disadvantages: your neighbours can make a lot of noise.
And the last type of dwelling I want to mention is a detached house. It has a lot of advantages: first of all your neighbours can never disturb you. But at the same time if you want to ask your neighbours for something or just to have a talk you can visit them.
So, there are many types of housing and all the people have the right to choose.
Anapartment in American English or flatin British English is a self-contained housing unit (a type of residential real estate) that occupies only part of a building. Such a building may be called an apartment building, apartment house (in American English), block of flats, tower block, high-rise or, occasionally mansion block (in British English), especially if it consists of many apartments for rent.
1) Are you a city person? Or do you prefer the country?
2) What types of housing are popular in Russia? Why?
3) Where would you like to live in future?
a) Complete the word combinations and translate them:
b) Fill in: “house” or “home”
1) How many rooms are there in your … ?
2) What’s your … town? – Bugulma.
3) What kind of a … have you got?
4) I’ll be … all day Tuesday.
5) I live in the beautiful three-bedroom … .
6) There is no place like … .
7) On the way … from school, I met Sue.
Exercise 3. Find the definitions:
Exercise 4. Read the information and compare an English home to an American or a Russian one. Are there any common features?
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