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Obligation and Likelihood




Exercise 235

1) must; 2) will have to; 3) must; 4) had to; 5) had to; 6) was to; 7) were to, had to; 8) must; 9) is to; 10) must; 11) had to; 12) will not have to; 13) will not have to; 14) are to; 15) are to

Exercise 236

1) study; 2) be studying; 3) have studied; 4) have been studying; 5) have been taking; 6) be; 7) be; 8) think; 9) be thinking; 10) have written; 11) be playing; 12) have understood; 13) be staying; 14) have got; 15) have met

Exercise 237

1) be raining; 2) have followed; 3) have fallen ill; 4) be, have missed; 5) be quarrelling; 6) have noticed; 7) have been; 8) be waiting; 9) have forgotten; 16) have been writing, be; 11) have misunderstood; 12) have seen; 13) be going; 14) be reading; 15) take

Exercise 238

I.They are in Greece. They must be enjoying themselves. 2. She is an experienced teacher. She must have been working at school for at least twenty years. 3. They must have finished painting the house. 4. She must be at home. 5. They must have already passed the frontier. 6. He must be playing cards with his friends. 7. She is not very young, as she seems to be. She must be nearly forty. 8. You must have visited this place before. 9. He has to do a very urgent task. He must be working now. 10. He is so absent-minded. He must have left the letter unanswered. 11. You know he is a good tennis player. He must haVe won this match. 12.1 shan't bother you any longer; you must feel tired of my talking after a tiring day. 13. They must be expecting somebody. 14. She must have been upset by something; I never saw her so nervous. 15. The youth must be reading something funny. He is smiling all the time.

Exercise 239

la, 2b, 3c, 4c, 5a, 6c, 7a, 8a, 9b, Юа

Exercise 240

1. He must have heard about it. 2. This house must have been built at the beginning of the century. 3. You must not stop work till you finish it. 4. They must be having a lesson now. 5. Take it easy, he must have done it by chance. 6. He must be sleeping now. 7.1 have been looking for the house for half an hour already and can't find it anywhere. She must have given me the wrong address. 8.1 did not have to do the drawing. 9. Evidently, he had no time to finish work by Friday and had to spend the weekend doing it because it was to be done by Monday. 10. Evidently, she hasn't watered the garden. The ground is very dry. 11. There was no choice and they had to agree. 12. She must be waiting for us at home. 13. She must wait for us at home. 14. Evidently, she was not told that we had already returned. 15, She had to apologize though it was unpleasant for her.

Exercise 241

1) watering; 2) fixed; 3) to come; 4) repaired; 5) to prepare; 6) cutting; 7) to book; 8) looked after; 9) papered; 10) to get

Exercise 242

1) come; 2) to carry; 3) to worry; 4) to tell; 5) phone; 6) ask; 7) to go; 8) leave; 9) help; 10) to talk

Exercise 243

1) needn't; 2) needn't; 3) needn't; 4) mustn't; 5) mustn't; 6) needn't; 7) needn't; 8) needn't; 9) mustn't; 10) mustn't

Exercise 244

1) needn't have gone; 2) didn't need to cook; 3) needn't have hurried; 4) didn't have to return; 5) didn't have to take; 6) needn't have come; 7) didn't have to go; 8) needn't have made; 9) didn't have to wake up; 10) needn't have spent

Exercise 245

1. You needn't have told Mike about it. 2. He needn't be asked about it. 3.1 need your help. 4. You needn't have learned the text by heart, the teacher did not ask it.

5. In the evening the temperature fell and he decided that he didn't have to go to the doctor's. 6. Don't you see that his hair needs cutting? 7. He needn't have refused the invitation. 8. You bought your car only a year ago. Does it need to be painted? 9. My computer needs fixing. 10. John did not have to go to London, and he decided to spend the weekend in Brighton.

Exercise 246

If, 2h, За, 4j, 5b, 6c, 7i, 8e, 9g, lOd

Exercise 247

1. She ought to have taken a taxi. 2.1 should have eaten at home. 3. She shouldn't have bought a TV set. 4. He shouldn't have signed a contract without reading it thoroughly. 5. Mary shouldn't have sold her house.

6. You ought to have come to the party last night. 7. The driver in front of me shouldn't have stopped suddenly 8. The boy shouldn't have gone out. 9. We should have reserved the rooms beforehand. 10. Tom and Mary ought not to have got married.

Exercise 248

1) be; 2) have missed; 3) have exceeded; 4) have taken; 5) control; 6) have cleared; 7) have stayed; 8) shave; 9) have been; 10) have revealed

Exercise 249

lc, 2b, 3b, 4d, 5a, 6b, 7c, 8a, 9b, Юа

Exercise 250

1) did not have to go/did not need to go; 2) have to take; 3) must/ought to/should respect; 4) should be done/ ought to be done; 5) are to meet, needn't make; 6) must have; 7) should/must try; 8) had to change; 9) needn't/ shouldn't shout; 10) must be crossing

Exercise 251

1. You should have rung him up yesterday. 2. He shouldn't have spoken to her in that tone. His tone must have hurt her. 3. It was to happen. Everybody knows his forgetfulness. 4. She had to find out everything before starting the work. Now she must change a lot of things. 5. She should have brought all the papers long ago. Now it's too late. 6. Children must not see horror films. 7. Shall I see them off? — No, you needn't. I'll have to do it myself. 8. You/ One must adapt yourself/oneself to a new life in a foreign country. 9. You needn't have bought this coat. 10. Evidently, we did not notice him in the crowd. 11. We did not need to hurry, so we decided to walk. 12. Why should I do it?

Ability, Likelihood and Permission

Exercise 252

1) can, was not able to; 2) been able to; 3) be able to; 4) can, can't; 5) can't, will be able to; 6) can; 7) be able to; 8) been able to; 9) couldn't; 10) to be able to; 11) could; 12) could (not); 13) can; 14) were able to; 15) could

Exercise 253

1) be; 2) have got; 3) have done; 4) be; 5) have been; 6) have told; 7) have cancelled; 8) do; 9) have been; 10) have committed; 11) come; 12) have crashed

Exercise 254

A1. Can he have been at the party yesterday? 2. Could they be in Germany? 3. Can he have broken his leg? 4. Could they have been sent to prison? 5. Can she got married? 6. Could he study at Cambridge University? 7. Can she have been practicing the violin for five years? 8. Could he have made an interesting report? 9. Could he have won a lot of money in the casino? 10. Can they will to the Canaries next summer? 11. Could he have passed his English exam? 12. Could she be forty in June? 13. Can she be stubborn?

14. Could he have been a cruel man?

В 1. You can't be mistaken. 2. They can't have forgotten about the meeting. 3. He couldn't be writing a new novel now. 4. She couldn't have bought a new fur coat. 5. He can't have had an accident. 6. Mary can't invite the Jones to her place for the weekend. 7. They couldn't have upset our plans. 8. She can't waste a lot of time. 9. Mr. Fox couldn't be a reliable person. 10. She couldn't be making a cruise now.

Exercise 255

1. He can't have been at home at that time yesterday. 2. Can he have told you about it? 3. He could have called on them when he was in Moscow. 4. He could have done it but he didn't want to. 5. Could he have refused to go there? 6. He can't be sleeping now. 7» They can't have left without saying goodbye to us. 8. She can't have answered you in such a way. 9. He could come tomorrow. 10. He can't have collided with another car. He is such a careful driver. 11. He couldn't have forgotten his promise, I reminded him about it yesterday. 12. He could not read the book so quickly, it is too difficult for him. 13. They could have reached the top, but the weather prevented them from doing it. 14. They couldn't get married, they are so different

15. Has anybody have thought of his winning the match?

Exercise 256

1. Under the law you may make one photocopy for your personal use but you can't make multiple copies. 2. This may/might be the reason why they have refused to join us. 12*

3.1 may/might have to take her to hospital; she may/might have broken her arm in the accident. 4. He may/might not have had her phone number. 5. When the World Cup was shown on TV, I might stay up late and watch it. 6. Your friend may/might help you, but I don't believe it. 7. They may/might not have known that the problem was so urgent. 8. May I smoke here? 9. You might have come! I needed your help badly. 10. She may/might have made a mistake, but I am not sure of it. She is a very punctual person.

Exercise 257

1) might have warned; 2) may/might start; 3) can't/ couldn't not have heard; 4) may/might have heard; 5) can't/couldn't have noticed; 6) may/might not have noticed; 7) may; 8) may/might not have heard; 9) can't/ couldn't have heard, could; 10) may; 11) may; 12) might have helped; 13) can/could ... have said

Exercise 258

la, 2d, За, 4c, 5d, 6c

Exercise 259

1) must/may be reading; 2) can' have got; 3) might have been; 4) must have got; 5) must/may; 6) need not have taken up; 7) must/may/might, were to come; 8) must/may/might have lost; 9) should/might have introduced; 10) can't/couldn't have bought; 11) may/ might/could have bought; 12) must/may have arrived; 13) must/may/might be smoking; 14) must/should/ought to do; 15) might have bought; 16) must/should obey; 17) needn't have waited; 18) must have been working; 19) could be; 20) may/might not have known

Exercise 260

Correct sentences: 7, 10

1.1 need not have dressed in my best. When I came, everybody was wearing jeans and T-shirts. 2. He might have known that she needed his help. 3. He must/may have had an accident in the thick fog. 4. You should have phoned her long ago. I am. sure she is looking forward to your call. 5. With your knowledge of the language you can/are able to read the article. 6.1 cannot imagine Mary teaching students. She used to be so impatient. — You know, time changes people. She may have become quite different. 8.1 was so angry, I could have thrown my boot at him. 9. Could you do me a favour, please?

Exercise 261

1. What's happening here? Could you tell me what the matter is? — The police must be catching a dangerous criminal, that's why you must not/can't go here. 2. He might have explained to me from the very beginning the importance of it. 3. You should hurry up. We may be late. 4. What a boring film I have seen! I needn't have gone to the cinema, I could have seen something on TV. 5. You should have gone on a diet half a year ago. Look at yourself! You've gained three kilos. You must not/can't eat sweets. 6. Could she have lost my telephone number? 7. Why is he keeping silence? — He may/might not have heard your question. Could you repeat it, please? 8. You ought to/ should/must respect your parents. 9. He probably won't come today. It's 8 o'clock already and he was to have come at seven. 10. They couldn't have returned yet. They are there for the first time and can/may stay long.




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