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Smb will, would have been, have done smth - должно быть, по-видимому




1. Change the following statements of fact into expressions of near certainty by using “will”, would + Infinitive. Use the Indefinite Infinitive when speaking about the present, the Perfect Infinitive when speaking about the past.

Pattern:1.The slim girl in the middle of the room, she wasthe secretary making frequent typing mistakes. The slim girl in the middle of the room will have beenthe secretary making frequent typing mistakes.

2. The tall building to the left is the post office. The tall building to the left will bethe post office.

1. These are the parents of the children taking exams. 2. This is the person who is working slowly and inefficiently. 3. You have done the puzzles. 4. He left a message for his wife. 5. It was someone the secretary knew. 6. That is the programme I adore. 7. The tall man in brown shorts cutting the grass is our neighbour. 8. Something was decided.

Translate the following. Indicate the functions in each case for will and would.

1. Они слишком долго там стоят, по-видимому, дверь не открывается. 2. Ножницы не режут. 3. Она ни как не хотела говорить, что она там видела. 4. Оставайтесь с нами посмотреть концерт. 5. Заполните, пожалуйста, этот формуляр. 6. Она, бывало, всегда рассказывала о своих поездках. 7. Сейчас же сходи и проверь все замки. 8. Напишите пять примеров на это правило. 9. Второе он есть не стал, и я не смогла его заставить. 10. Дверь все время открывается. 11. Я обязательно посмотрю этот фильм. 12. Проходите, пожалуйста.

CONCLUSIVE TESTS ON MODALS

Underline the correct answer and indicate the corresponding function.

1) Alice must / had to leave the meeting early because she had a train to catch.

2) What you must / should have done is to call the police, not get involved yourself.

3) I will /could be able to speak better if I practise more.

4) Bernadette has done so little work, she should / needn’t have bothered to come to class today.

5) I didn’t / couldn’t get tickets after all – they were sold out.

Underline the correct word A, B, C or D to fill the spaces.

a) It ….. be weeks before the building is actually finished.

A must B would C ought to D could

b) You …… even have lost your job by then, who knows?

A should B may C can D will

c) That ….. be Kate coming home now. Go and open the door for her, will you?

A will B can C ought D shall

d) Things ….. have been worse – everything seemed to be going wrong at once.

A shouldn’t B couldn’t C mustn’t D may

Indicate the corresponding function for the use of shall and will, should and would. Translate the sentences.

1. He will not make that sacrifice for us.

2. He shall not make that sacrifice for us.

3. I shall try to focus that the feeling and make inexpert efforts to find where it leads.

4. I shall presently find means to smuggle you out of here.

5. I will find some kind of work for you tomorrow, without fail.

6. I shall drown; no one will help me.

7. I will drown; no one shall help me.

8. Will he take the proofs to the printer?

9. Shall he take the proofs to the printer?

10. Will you dance with me?

4. Match a first sentence with a second one (a-j) to make short exchanges.



1. “Shall we go to a Chinese restaurant this evening?”

2. “May I borrow your calculator for a moment”?

3. “Would you help me get the dinner ready?”

4. “You shouldn’t get upset so easily.”

5. “You ought to have gone to the doctor as soon as you felt bad.”

6. “Do you think I should go and complain to the manager”?

7. “I’m sorry but you can’t hand in the assignment a month late.”

8. “Could I have some time off to visit my friend in hospital?’’

9. “Can I get you anything from the shops?”

10. “You shouldn’t have spoken like that to your mother.”

a) “Not really; I’ll be popping out myself in a minute.”

b) “I’d rather stay at home.”

c) “Actually, it would be difficult to do without you right now.”

d) “Could you give me another week then?”

e) “It’s up to you really; it depends how strongly you feel.”

f) “I’m sorry but I’m using it.”

g) “I’ve apologized; what else can I do?”

h) “Do I have to? I’ve got to do my homework.”

i) “I can’t help it; he really makes me furious.”

j) “I couldn’t because there was no one to take me.”

Underline the correct modal verb in these sentences.

1. She can / can’t be Italian with a name like Smith!

2. I may / can’t be able to come.

3. A: Someone’s at the door. B: That can / will be Joan.

4. You could have been / must have been crazy to do something as dangerous as that!

5. He can’t have been / may have been the murderer because he has an excellent alibi.

6. I might / can not be able to come, so don’t wait for me.

7. It may / must be cold tomorrow.

8. Who could have / should have done such a terrible thing?

9. Hurry up, we’re late! We might / should have been ready hours ago.

10. He could / can have been the one who started the fire but we’re really not really sure.

Choose and underline the function of the modal verb from the following options: offer, suggestion, obligation, absence of obligation, prohibition, permission, ability, certainty, probability, deduction, advice, request.

JUDGE: You’ve been found guilty of not stopping at a red traffic light when you should have done.What do you have to say for yourself?

ACCUSED: But I often stop at green traffic lights when I don’t have to!





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