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Перескажите текст 'The Individual and Society'





UNIT 7.

 

1. Запомните следующие слова и словосочетания:

according to - согласно, в соответствии с

appearance - появление

argue - спорить, оспаривать

arise - возникать

broad - широкий, обширный

carryout - выполнять, осуществлять

custom - обычай

determine - определять

develop - развивать, разрабатывать

devise - придумывать, изобретать

distant - отдаленный

distribution - распределение

division -деление, разделение

exist - существовать

equal pay - равная оплата

fairly - довольно

familiar - знакомый

fixed - закрепленный, постоянный

inspiteof - несмотря на

legal - законный, юридический

market - рынок

obtain - получать

present - представлять

procedure - технологический процесс, образ действия; процедура

process of trial and error – метод проб и ошибок

recent -недавний

regard - считаться

rigidity - жесткость

share - доля, акция

share on - распределять

similar -подобный

skill - умение, мастерство

task - задача

tool - инструмент

trade - занятие, ремесло

variety - разнообразие

whereby - посредством чего

 

Прочтите и переведите текст.

 

ECONOMIC SYSTEM

To an economist, economic society presents itself as a mechanism for survival - a means whereby people are able to carry out the tasks of production and distribution. If we look at the different political and social structures which exist in the world today, and the way in which those systems have developed over the years, we are tempted to say that people have made use of, and are making use of, a very great variety of economic systems. In fact, in spite of the appearance of great variety, it is possible to group these different economic structures into four broad categories. These basic types of economic organisation are usually described as Traditional economies, Market economies, Command economies and Mixed economies.

Traditional economies

The oldest and until fairly recent times by far the most common way of solving economic problem was that of tradition. In traditional societies, people use methods of production and distribution that were devised in the distant past and which have become the accepted ways of doing things by a long process of trial and error.

In these societies we find that the division of land among the families in the village or tribe, the methods and times of planting and harvesting, the selection of crops, and the way in which the produce is distributed among the different groups are all based upon tradition. Year by year, little is changed; indeed a change in working procedures may well be regarded as an affront to memory of one's ancestors or as an offence against the gods.

The basic economic problems do not arise as problems to be discussed and argued about. They have all been decided long ago. One follows the path that one was born to follow; a son follows in the footsteps of his father and uses the same skills and tools. A caste system provides a good example of the rigidity of a traditional society. The production problems (i. e. What? and How?) are solved by using land as it has always been used and the worker carrying out the traditional skills according to his or her fixed place in social structure. The distribution problem (i. e. For Whom?) is solved in a similar manner. There will be time-honoured methods of sharing out the produce of the harvest and hunt. The elders, the heads of families, the women and the children will receive shares according to ancient custom.



Traditional solutions to the economic problems of production and distribution are encountered in primitive agricultural and pastoral communities. But, even in advanced countries, tradition still plays some part in determining how the economy works. We are familiar with industries in which it is customary, for the son to follow his father into a trade or profession, and in Britain equal pay for women did not obtain legal sanction until the 1970-s.

 

3. Преобразуйте предложения в Past и Future Simple:

1. It presents the mechanism for survival.

2. They are able to carry out the task of production.

3. It is possible to group these structures into four broad categories.

4. These methods are based on tradition.

5. A son follows in the footsteps of his father and uses the same skills and tools.

6. The distribution problem is solved in a similar manner.

7. They receive shares according to an ancient custom.

8. Tradition plays some part in economical processes.

4. Заполните пропуски, используя следующие слова:

land, long, path, presents, arise, solved, shares, similar, custom, distribution, tasks, used, as

1. Economic society ... itself a means whereby people are able to carry out the ... of production and ... .

2. The basic economic problems do not... as problems to be discussed and argued about.

3. They have all been decided ... ago.

4. One follows the ... that one was born to follow.

5. The production problems are ... by using ... as it has always been ....

6. The distribution problem is ... in a ... manner.

7. The elders will receive ... according to ancient... .

 

5. Переведите следующие словосочетания слов с русского языка на английский:

механизм выживания, задачи производства и распределения, наиболее распространенный путь решения экономических проблем, в далеком прошлом, основные экономические проблемы, таким же путем, согласно древнему обычаю, в передовых странах, равная оплата труда женщин.

 

6. Образуйте 3 формы от следующих глаголов:

to present, to carry out, to look, to exist, to develop, to tempt, to change, to discuss, to decide, to follow, to group, to describe, to argue, to provide, to share, to make, to become, to do, to find, to arise

8. Составьте предложения, используя следующие слова:

1. these, possible, to, group, is, different, structures, three, into, categories, broad, it, economic.

2. way, economic, the, oldest, solving, tradition, that, was, problems, of, of.

3. have, been, all, they, ago, decided, long.

4. in, son, footsteps, his, of, a, father, follows, the.

5. is, distribution, solved, problem, manner, in, similar, the, a.

 

9. Заполните пропуски предлогами:

1. ... fact,... spite ... the appearance ... great variety, it is possible to group these structures ... four broad categories

2. These types ... economic organisation are usually described ... Traditional economies, Market economies, Command economies and Mixed economies.

3. The oldest and until fairly recent times... far the most common way in solving economic problems was that ... tradition.

4. ... traditional societies, people use methods... production and distribution that were devised ... the distant past.

5. ... these societies we find that the division... land ... the families ... the village or tribe, the methods and times ... planting and harvesting all all based ... tradition.

6. Year ... year, little is changed.

7. The basic economic problems do not arise ... problems to be discussed and argued ....

8. There will be time-honoured methods ... sharing ...the produce ... the harvest and hunt.

9. ... Britain equal pay ... women did not obtain legal sanction ... the 1970s.

 

10. Поставьте вопросы к выделенным словам:

1. In traditional societies, people use methods of production that were devised in the distant past.

2. They have all been decided long ago.

3. A son follows in the footsteps of his father.

4. He uses the same skills and tools.

5. A caste system provides a good example of the rigidity of a traditional society.

6. The distribution problem is solved in a similar manner.

7. Tlie heads of families will receive shares according to ancient custom.

8. In Britain equal pay for women did not obtain legal sanction until the 1970s.

 

11. Заполните пропуски, используя в нужной форме глаголы, данные в скобках:

1. Economic society... itself as a means whereby people are able to carry out the tasks of production and distribution (to present).

2. If we look at the very different political and social structures and the way in which these systems ... (to develop) over the years, we are tempted to say that people ... (to make) use of and ... (to make) use of, a very great varieties of economic systems.

3. These basic types of economic organisation ... (to describe) as Traditional economies, Market economies, Command economies and Mixed economies.

4. In traditional societies, people ... (to use) methods of production and distribution that ... (to devise) in the distant past and which ... (to become) the accepted ways of doing things by a long process of trial and error.

5. A change in working procedures may v/ell ... (to regard) as an affront to memory of one's ancestors.

6. The basic economic problems do not... (to arise) as problems ... (to discuss) and ... (to argue) about.

7. Traditional solutions to the economic problems ... (to encounter) in primitive agricultural and pastoral communities.

 

12. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:

1. What does economic society present itself for an economist?

2. What broad categories can different economic systems be grouped into?

3. What methods of production and distribution do people in traditional societies use?

4. What example does a caste system provide?

5. How are the production problems (What? and How?) solved in traditional societies?

6. What part does tradition play in advanced countries? Give examples.

 





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