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UNIT 10.

DEALING WITH MONEY.

 

Прочитайте эти цифры на английском языке.

1. 2%

2. $200

3. ?27,50

4. ?1,500

 

Составьте список разновидностей выплат.

 

Определите, в каком из представленных мест происходит диалог.

1. A travel agent

2. A bar

3. A currency exchange

4. A hotel

a) AI'd like to change some Canadian dollars. Is the exchange rate the same as yesterday?

В Yes, it is.

A And what’s the commision?

В It's two per cent.

A OK, can I change two hundred dollars, please?

 

b)СGood morning. I’d like to settle my billnow.

D Yes, sir. How would you like to pay?

С Do you take traveller’s cheques?

D I'm afraid not. We only take credit cars or cash.

С I'llpay by credit card, then. Is Visa OK?

D Visa is fine. What's your room number?

 

c)E Can we have the bill, please?

F Yes, that's ?27.50 altogether.

E OK. Here's fifty. Sony, I don't have anything smaller.

F No problem.

E Can I have аreceipt, please?

F Sure. Here's your change, and your receipt.

 

d) G So, the total price is ?1,500 - that includes flights, hotel vouchers, and insurance.

H That’s fine.

G I need to take a ten per cent deposit now. You can pay the balance later.

H OK, here’s my credit card.

 

Закончите предложения, используя предложенные слова и выражения.

cash ■ credit card ■ traveller'scheque ■ change ■ commission ■ deposit ■ exchange rate ■ bill ■ receipt ■ insurance

1. The_________________ _________is extra money that you pay for a service.

2. A ______is a piece of paper that shows how much you must pay.

3. A ______ is a sum of money which is the first payment for something.

4. _______ is money in the form of notes or coins.

5. ________________ is money you pay to protect yourself against something bad happening.

6. A_________________ is a piece of paper that shows how much you have paid.

7. A ____________is a cheque you can exchange for foreign money.

8. A _______is a plastic card you can use to pay for things.

9. _________is the money you get back if you pay more than something costs.

10. The_____is the value of the one currancy compared to another.

 

Определите, кому принадлежат следующие высказывания: покупателю или обслуживающему персоналу?

1 Can I have a receipt, please?

2 How would you like to pay?

3 Do you take traveller's cheques?

4 Here's your change, and your receipt.

5 We only take credit cards or cash.

6 Can we have the bill, please?

7 I need to take a ten per cent deposit.

8 Can I change two hundred dollars, please?

9 That's ?27.50 altogether.

10 The total price is ?1,500.

11 And what's the commission?

12 Is Visa OK?

13 Sorry, I don't have anything smaller.

 

Прочитайте диалоги (упражнение 3) в парах.

 

7. Составьте и расскажите диалоги в парах, используя следующие ситуации:

Customer:

1. You want to change US$150 into euros.

2. You want to settle your hotel bill and pay by Euro-cheques.

3. You want the bill and a receipt. You only have a ?50 note.

4. You've just booked a holiday. You have two credit cards, Visa and Amex.



Person serving:

1. The exchange rate for US$ is 0.87. The commission is 3% for amounts up to ?200, and 1.5% for higher amounts.

2. The bill is ?490.00. You only take cash or credit cards.

3. The bill is ?19.00.

4. The total price is ?2,500. You need a 20% deposit. You take Visa and Mastercard, but not Amex.

 

8. Работа в группах. Выберите три понравившихся вам страны. Используйте книги или Интернет для того, чтобы собрать как можно больше информации об обращении с деньгами в этих странах. Напишите небольшие доклады для посетителей этих стран, включая информацию о:

• currency

• the best place to change money (banks, bureau de change, etc.)

• the best way to carry money (traveller's cheques, dollars, etc.)

• how easy it is to use credit cards, etc,

• other useful information.

 

UNIT 11.

 

1. Запомните следующие слова и словосочетания:

aggregate demand – совокупный спрос

attempt - попытка

confidence - доверие

creeping inflation - ползучая инфляция

currency - валюта, деньги

current - текущий

eventually - в конечном счете, со временем

expenditure - расходы

experience - испытывать

hyperinflation - гиперинфляция

inevitably - неизбежно

persistently - постоянно, настойчиво

private - частный

queue - очередь

rate - уровень, темп

rationing - нормирование

replace - заменять

run-away inflation - гиперинфляция

saving - сбережение, накопление

since - так как

taxation - налогообложение

transfer - перемещать, переводить

withdraw - изымать

 

Прочтите и переведите текст.

 

INFLATION

There are several ways of defining inflation. In some contexts it refers to a steady increase in the supply of money. In others it is seen as a situation where demand persistently exceeds supply. It seems best, however, to define inflation in terms of its basic symptom-rising prices. Inflation is a situation in which the general price level is persistently moving upwards.

In the extreme form of inflation, prices rise at a phenomenal rate and terms such as hyperinflation, runaway inflation, or galloping inflation have been used to explain the situation. Germany experienced this kind of inflation in 1923 and by the end of that year prices were one million times greater than their pre-war level. Towards the end of 1923, paper money was losing half or more of its value one hour, and wages were fixed and paid daily.

Under conditions of hyperinflation people lose confidence in the currency's ability to carry out its functions. It becomes unacceptable as a medium of exchange and other commodities, such as cigarettes, are used as money. When things have become as bad as this the only possible course of action is to withdraw the currency and issue new monetary units. So great was the loss of confidence in Hungary that the new currency had to be given a new name, the Forint replacing the Pengo.

Another type of inflation is described as suppressed inflation. This refers to a situation where demand exceeds supply, but the effect on prices is minimised by the use of such devices as price controls and rationing. We should note that price controls do not deal with the causes of inflation, they merely attempt to suppress the symptoms. The excess demand still exist and it will tend to show itself in the form of waiting lists, queues, and almost inevitably, in the form of black markets.

The most common type of inflation is that experienced since the war in Britain and other developed countries. This is creeping inflation where the general price level rises at an annual rate between 1 and 6 percent.

The causes of inflation are usually classified as demand-pull or cost-push.

Demand inflation

Demand inflation may be defined as a situation where aggregate demand persistently exceeds aggregate supply at current prices so that prices are being 'pulled' upwards. This type of inflation is usually associated with conditions of full employment. If there are unemployed resources available, an increase in demand can be not by bringing these resources into employment.

Supply will increase and the increase in demand will have little or no effect on the general price level. If the total demand for goods and services continues to increase, however, a full employment situation will eventually be reached and no further increases in output are possible (i.e. in the short run). Once the nation's resources are fully employed, an increase in demand must lead to an upward movement of prices.

A situation of excess demand may arise when a country is trying to achieve an export surplus, in order, perhaps, to pay off some overseas debt. Exports are inflationary because they generate income at home but reduce home supplies. Imports, of course, can make good this deficiency of home supply, but if exports are greater than imports there will be excess demand in the home market unless taxes and savings are increased to absorb the excess purchasing power.

Demand inflation might develop when, with full employment, a country tries to increase its rate of economic growth. In order to increase the rate of capital accumulation, resources will have to be transferred from the production of consumer goods to the production of capital goods. Incomes will not fall since the factors of production are still fully employed, but the supply of the things on which these incomes may be sent will fall. Unless taxation and/or savings increase there will be excess demand and rising prices.

 

3.Образуйте существительные от следующих гла­голов:

refer, increase, define, move, experience, exchange, lose, confide, describe, control, attempt, tend, develop, classify, associate, employ, accumulate

 

4. Заполните пропуски, используя следующие слова:

employment, conditions, level, deal, defining, confidence, functions, withdraw, upwards, causes, income

1. There are several ways of... inflation.

2. Inflation is a situation in which the general price ... is persistently moving ... .

3. Under ... of hyperinflation people lose ... in the currency's ability to carry out its ... .

4. The only possible cause of action was to ... currency.

5. Price controls do not... with the ... of inflation.

6. This time of inflation is usually associated with the conditions of full....

7. Exports generate ... at home but reduce home supplies.

 

5. Найдите синонимы среди следующих слов:

type, steady, level, runaway, rise, standard, expense, medi­um, cause, confidence, replace, attempt, rate, constant, kind, galloping, means, reason, trust, change, try, total, increase, lead to, aggregate, achieve, result in, generate, reach, produce, reduce, tempo, decrease, expenditure

 

6. Найдите антонимы среди следующих слов:

rise, lose, fixed, excess, growth, private, income, fall, find, decline, flexible, deficiency, expenditure, public

 

7. Переведите следующие сочетания слов:

постоянный рост, общий уровень цен, с феноме­нальной скоростью, довоенный уровень, в услови­ях гиперинфляции, выполнять свои функции, единственно возможный способ действий, потеря доверия, причина инфляции, в виде черных рын­ков, ползучая инфляция, национальные ресурсы, темп капиталонакопления, частные сбережения, внутренний рынок, уровень инфляции.

 

8. Образуйте 3 формы от следующих глаголов:

refer, pay, withdraw, lose, rise, reach, lead, arise, absorb, fall, send

 

9. Составьте предложения, используя следующие слова:

1. are, ways, several, there, of, inflation, defining.

2. controls, deal, not, price, do, the, with, causes, of, inflation.

3. inflationary, they, because, exports, are, home, reduce, supplies.

4. steady, to, a, inflation, refers, increase, of, money, the, supply, in.

5. an, extreme, inflation, of, form, in, at, rate, prices, a, phenomenal, rise.

6. in, this, Germany, 1923, kind, experienced, inflation, of.

 

10.Заполните пропуски предлогами:

1. It seems best, however, to define inflation ... terms ...
its basic symptoms-rising prices.

2. Inflation is a situation ... which the general price is persistently moving upwards.

3. Towards the end... 1923, paper money was losing half or more ... its value ... one hour.

4. ... conditions of hyperinflation people lose confidence ... the currency's ability to carry ... its functions.

5. This is creeping inflation where the general price level rises ... at an annual rate ... 1 and 6 percent.

11. Поставьте вопросы к выделенным словам:

1. In some contexts inflation refers to a steady increase in the supply of money.

2. In an extreme form of inflation, prices rise at a phenomenal rate.

3. Germany experienced this kind of inflation in 1923.

4. By the end of that year prices were one million times greater then their pre-war level.

5. Towards the end of 1923, wages were paid daily.

 

12. Заполните пропуски, используя в нужной форме глаголы, данные в скобках:

1. Other commodities, such as cigarettes, (to use) as money.

2. So great... (to be) the loss of confidence in Hungary that the new currency had ... (to give) a new name.

3. Another type of inflation ... (to describe) as suppressed inflation.

4. The effect on prices ... (to minimise) by the use of such devices as price controls and rationing.

5. The most common type of inflation is that ... (to experience) since the war in Britain.

6. The causes of inflation may ... (to classify) as demand-pull or cost-push.

7. Demand inflation may ... (to define) as a situation where aggregate demand persistently ... (to exceed) aggregate supply at current prices so that the prices...(to pull) upwards.

8. This type of inflation ... (to associate) with conditions of full employment.

9. If there are unemployed resources available, an increase in demand can ... (to meet) by bringing these resources into employment.

10. If the total demand for goods and services continues... (to increase), a full employment situation ... (to reach).

11. In order ... (to increase) the rate of capital accumulation, resources will have ... (to transfer) from the production of consumer goods to the production of capital goods.

12. Even when the additional government spending ... (to finance) from the taxation the effect may still... (to be) inflationary.

 

13. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:

1. How can inflation be defined?

2. What is hyperinflation?

3. What happens under conditions of hyperinflation?

4. What is the only possible course of action when money becomes unacceptable as a medium of exchange?

5. What is suppressed inflation?

6. How can you characterise creeping inflation?

7. How are the causes of inflation usually classified?

8. How may demand inflation be defined?

9. What is demand inflation usually associated with?

10. When may a situation of excess demand arise?

11. Why are exports inflationary?

12. When may demand inflation develop?

 

14. Перескажитетекст "Types of Inflation".





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