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The flu pandemic of 1918-19




The influenza pandemic of 1918-19 killed millions (0) ofpeople at the end of World War One. As (1)…..as 40 million people are believed to have died and more or less (2)….. part of the world was affected. As might be expected, a (3)….. number of the victims were soldiers. In fact, in some parts of the war zone, (4)….. many soldiers died of influenza as died in the fighting. In the US army at home and abroad ten (5)….. as many soldiers died of influenza. Unusually, in the civilian population there were relatively (6)…..victims among the young and elderly, the usual victims of influenza. Instead, most of the (7)….. millions who died were the strongest members of the population, between the ages of 20 and 40. Doctors at the time had (8)….. little idea of how to treat the disease and it spread rapidly as the war ended and (9)….. numbers of people returned home. At the time, (10)….. of people believed that the epidemic was caused by biological warfare. However there is (11)….. evidence to support this suspicion. Scientists now believe that a pandemic occurs (12)….. time the influenza virus changes its genetic composition. This pandemic is sometimes known as the Spanish Flu because it was believed to have caused as many (13)….. 8 million deaths in Spain in 1918. However the outbreak is now believed to have originated in China.

Exercise 2.For questions 1-10,read the text below and think of the word which best fits each gap. Use only one word in each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0).

EXAMPLE: 0 many

Salt consumption and health

Health experts believe that (0)…manypeople are consuming far too (1)…..salt, and that this is a health risk. There are plenty (2)….. studies which show that increased salt consumption raises blood pressure and can cause heart problems, and the recommendation is that we should all be consuming (3)….. salt. Even if we add (4)….. any salt to our food at the table, we may be consuming a (5)….. of salt without realizing. The daily recommended amount is 6 grams, but many people are consuming twice as much (6)….. this and the average daily consumption in the UK is over 9 g per day. Bread, biscuits, ketchup and ready made meals all contain (7)…. a lot of salt, so each time we eat a slice of bread, for example, we are adding to our daily intake. So what is the solution? We all need to be more aware of (8)….. much salt we are consuming, and try to limit our intake. Governments are encouraging food manufacturers to cut down on the (9)….. of salt they put into food, and every food product should state clearly on the wrapper how (10)….. salt it contains.



Exercise 3.For questions 1-9,read the text below and think of the word which best fits each gap. Use only oneword in each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0).

EXAMPLE: 0 unless

Environmental issues

Everyone agrees that (0) unless the world's tiger population is protected, tigers (1)…..eventually become extinct. If it (2)..…not for the efforts made by international campaigns over past decades, the extinction (3)..…already have become a fact. Tigers can coexist with human beings, (4)..…local people are involved in conservation. However, (5)…..if tiger habitats are redeveloped there is no guarantee of success. Government agencies must be involved, and there must be adequate finance: (6)..…conservation projects are neglected. An organized programme with safeguards must be introduced. If (7)….. the illegal hunters quickly move back in. (8)…..there were no tigers left in the world: how (9)…..we all feel? According to some environmentalists, that day may be coming sooner rather than later.

Exercise 4.For questions 1-15,read the text below and think of the word which best fits each gap. Use only oneword in each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0).

 

EXAMPLE: 0 one

Kangaroos

The kangaroo is (0) …of Australia's most iconic animals. Kangaroos of different types live in all areas of Australia, (1) … cold-climate areas and desert plains to tropical rainforests and beaches.

Kangaroos are herbivorous, eating a range of plants and, (2) … some cases, fungi. Different kangaroo species inhabit different habitats. Some, for example, make nests on the ground while tree-kangaroos live (3) … the ground. Larger species of kangaroo tend (4) …shelter under trees or in caves. Most kangaroos are distinguished from (5) … animals by the way they hop on their strong back legs. A kangaroo's tail is used to balance while hopping and (6) …a fifth limb when moving slowly. All female kangaroos have front-opening pouches that contain four teats. (7) … is in here that the 'joey' (8) … baby kangaroo is raised (9) …it can survive outside the pouch. Most kangaroos have no set breeding cycle and are able to breed all year round. (10) …they are such prolific breeders, a kangaroo population can increase fourfold in five years.

Kangaroos have long been important to the survival of Australia's indigenous people, (11) …have hunted them for tens of thousands of years, using both the meat and the skins. (12) … Europeans arrived in Australia in the late eighteenth century, they too hunted kangaroos (13) …survival. Kangaroos continue to be used as a resource, but only under strict government controls. Nowadays only the four most abundant species of kangaroo may (14) …commercially harvested for export, and then only by licensed hunters in accordance (15) …an approved management plan.

Exercise 5.For questions 1-15,read the text below and think of the word which best fits each gap. Use only oneword in each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0).

EXAMPLE: 0 out

Flamingos

Flamingos, those beautiful long-legged pink birds, rub the reddish pigments, released in oil from a gland near their tail, into their feathers to bring (0) … their vibrant colour. The result, according to researchers studying the birds in Spain, (1) …that the birds seem to become far (2) …likely to find themselves a mate.

Scientists Noticed that, (3) … they were arranging their feathers, many flamingos scraped their cheeks across the gland before rubbing their face against their breast, back and neck (4) … the aim of spreading the colour.

In a journal article, the experts explained that (5) … so helped the birds appear extra attractive to potential mates - not so (6) … because of their eye-catching colour, but because other flamingos could tell they had (7) … an effort with their appearance.

One of the researchers says: 'The rubbing is time-consuming. And (8) … more frequently the birds practise it, the pinker they become.

'If the birds stop rubbing, their colour fades in a (9) … days because the pigments bleach quickly in the sunlight.'

Rubbing the pigment into the feathers takes time and effort, and, (1 0) …a result, colourful feathers are a sign to the opposite sex that a flamingo is healthy and well-fed, because it (11) … afford to spend time on (12) … it looks.

The behaviour is more common in female flamingos (13) … in males, the researchers said.

They added that the brightest coloured birds also took the best breeding sites, (14) … gives them a reproductive advantage (15) … their paler rivals.

 

Part III

Exercise 1. For questions1-10,read the text below. Use the word given in capitals at the end of each line to form a word that fits in the space in the same line. There is an example at the beginning (0).

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