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The effect of climate change on migratory birds

Human-induced climate change has begun to affect our; planet and the organisms that live (0)on....,it. Many migratory birds are very sensitive to environmental changes and are already (1) … affected by climate change. Increasing temperatures, changing vegetations and extreme weather conditions lead to significant changes of the birds' essential habitats. (2) … are the most likely reasons for the dramatic decline in some bird populations and changes in migration patterns.

Pie ways in (3) … migratory birds respond to these environmental changes differ across species. Generally speaking, short and middle distance migrating birds can adapt to climate changes more easily, (4)… long distance migrants (5) …at a disadvantage. Their migration pattern is usually more fixed and they struggle (6) … readjusting to changing temperatures. (7) … of this inflexibility they suffer more (8) … the impacts of climate change than other birds.

Species that are already in decline are especially vulnerable to climate change. In (9) …words, climate change may give these already very vulnerable species the final push (10) … extinction. It is not only in the interest of migratory birds, (11) … also in our own interest to protect all species (12) … the impact of climate change.

Exercise 12.For questions 1-10, read the text below and think of the word which best fits each gap. Use only one word in each gap. There is an example at the beginning.

Allergy Alert

To have an allergy means that a person is affected either by a substance in the atmosphere (0) or by some sort of food. (1) … days a lot of people suffer from one kind of allergy or another.

So, what can people do to fight allergies? If someone is allergic to chocolate, for instance, the simplest (2) … to do would be to avoid eating any chocolate. If, on the (3) … hand, the allergic reaction is caused by (4) … unknown or difficult to avoid, then the only solution is prescribed medication.

The chances of having an allergy are bound to be great if allergies (5) ... the family. In other words, if one parent suffers from allergies, the child has a thirty percent chance of being allergic, too. (6) … parents are affected, the risk doubles.

However this is absolutely (7) …logical reason to be terrified (8) … that possibility. Those who suffer can carry (9) … with their lives and not let their allergies wear them out.They shouldn’t feel different(10) …everyone else.

Exercise 13.For questions 1-12, read the text below and think of the word which best fits each gap. Use only one word in each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0).

A British psychologist says he can prove that the last Friday in June is the happiest day of the year.

Cliff Arnall, a University of Cardiff psychologist specialising (0) in seasonal disorders, (1) … created a formula for finding happiness. The research looks (2) … everything from increased outdoor activity and rising energy levels, (3) … picnics and beach trips with families.

Mr Arnall’s happiness formula depends (4) … six factors: outdoor activity, nature, social interaction, positive memories of childhood summers, temperature, and holidays and anticipation of time off. "At the end of June, the days are at their longest so (5) … are more hours of sunshine to enjoy and it's a time (6) … people have lots of gatherings with friends and family," Mr Arnall said. "Happiness is associated with many things in life and can (7) … triggered by a variety of events. Whether it's a sunny I day (8) … a childhood memory that triggers a feeling of happiness, I think this formula proves that the path to finding happiness is a simple (9) … "

The research (10) … commissioned to coincide with the launch (11) … a photography competition asking people to capture moments of happiness associated (12) … the experience of summer in Britain.

Exercise 14.Read the text below and decide which answer (A, B, C or D) best fits each space. There is an example at the beginning.

Scarlet fever is an (1) infectious … disease, caused by bacteria, which usually enter the body through the nose or mouth; it is transmitted from person to person by direct contact, that is, by sprays of droplets from the respiratory tract of an infected person, or by indirect contact through the use of uten­sils previously handled by an infected person. The disease most commonly (2) … children between the ages of two and ten.

The typical (3) … symptoms of the disease are headache, sore throat, chills, fever, and general malaise. From two to three days after the first appearance of symptoms, red spots may appear on the palate; bright red papilla (4) … on the tongue, giving it an appearance commonly called strawberry tongue. A characteristic skin eruption appears on the chest and usually spreads over the entire body except the face. The rash fades on pressure. The fever, which frequently runs as high as 40° to 40.6°C, generally lasts only a few days but may (5) … to a week or longer. The rash usually fades in (6) … a week, and at that time the skin begins to peel.

Scarlet fever may be (7) … by other diseases, for example, by pneumonia. Since the (8) … of penicillin, however, most instances of scarlet fever can be (9) … without the (10) … of permanent after­ effects.

1. A. infectious B. infection C. infect D. infected
2. A. affection B.affected C. affects D. affecting
3. A. initials B. initial C. initialize D. initialized
4. A. emerged B. emerge C. emerging D. emergence
5. A. extent B. extending C. extended D. extend
6 . A. approximately B. approximate C. approximation D. approximated
7. A. complication B. complicate C. complicated D.complicating
8. A. introduce B. introducing C. introduced D.introduction
9. A. cure B. cured C. curing D. cureless
10. A. occurrence B. occur C. occurred D. occurring

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