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Classification of Nouns




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Exercises in Modern English Grammar

А. С. Саакян

От автора

Предлагаемая Вашему вниманию книга "Exercises in Modern English Grammar" представляет собой учебное пособие по систематическому курсу грамматики современного англий­ского языка. Идея написания книги возникла в связи с теми ностальгическими чувствами, которые испытывают многие преподаватели английского языка при упоминании учебни­ка "Exercises in Modern English Grammar", авторами кото­рого являлись Ю.А. Крутиков, И.С. Кузьмина, Х.В. Рабино­вич и на котором выросло не одно поколение учителей ан­глийского языка в России.

Данное учебное пособие предназначено для старшекласс­ников, желающих повторить, закрепить и расширить те базовые знания в английской грамматике, которые они по­лучили в средней школе. Оно может быть успешно исполь­зовано студентами второго и третьего курсов факультетов английского языка. Большую помощь книга может оказать также учителям средних школ, гимназий и колледжей, различных подготовительных курсов. Не будучи увязан­ным ни с одним учебником, пособие может гибко сочетаться с любым базисным курсом английского языка, используе­мым в учебном процессе.



Учебное пособие состоит из двух разделов — Морфологии и Синтаксиса, включающих в себя упражнения аналити­ческого, тренировочного и творческого характера. Большое число коммуникативно ориентированных заданий дает уча­щимся возможность вывести в речь полученные знания и навыки. Особое внимание уделяется упражнениям сопос­тавительного характера, позволяющим вскрыть существен­ные различия в употреблении ряда грамматических явле­ний в английском и русском языках. В учебнике отраже­ны новейшие явления и тенденции, возникшие в системе английского языка на рубеже тысячелетий. Каждый раздел завершается рядом тестовых заданий, да­ющих возможность проверить уровень знаний. В пособии даны ключи к тестовым заданиям, так как их наличие даёт возможность осуществить самоконтроль и само коррекцию полученных знаний. Данное учебное пособие имеет совре­менное звучание, так как построено на основе фактическо­го материала, представляющего собой литературный и раз­говорный язык Великобритании и США конца XX и нача­ла XXI века.

Надеемся, что работа по предлагаемому учебному пособию будет для Вас полезной и приятной.

Who climbs the grammar tree distinctly knows Where noun and verb and participle grows.

Dryden

Parti

MORPHOLOGY. PARTS OF SPEECH

Chapter I.

THE NOUN

Classification of Nouns

Ex. 1. State whether the nouns in bold type are proper or common.

1. The Imperial State Crown of the Queen of England is normally kept at the Tower.2. This church has a towerattached to it. 3. The English Channelis the narrow area of water between England and France. 4. The main channelshad been closed by enemy submarines. 5. You are like a Figaro.One minute here, another there. 6. I've bought a Kodak,but I don't know how it works. 7. In the art circles he was known as a Metsenat. 8. Wellingtondefeated Napoleon's army in the battle of Waterloo. 9. Wellingtonsare rubber boots. Americans call them galoshes. 10. What had happened, became a Waterloo Bridgefor him. 11. He is areal Paparatssiin everything that concerns making money. 12. Rita Brown writes like an American Evelyn Waugh.13. He is thrilled at his new buy: a classic Mercedes Benz.14. Antony Marshall lives outside the city.Every morning he drives to the City where he works as staff manager. 15. The Red-White-and-Blue Union Jackhung out of every window, fluttering in the breeze. 16. Degasand Monetwere her husband's favourite artists, and both were well represented in their

house. 17. He glanced at the list of her art collection. Sisleys, Monets, Manets, a Dali, Renoirs and a Degas.It was a fabulous collection. 18. Carl Fabergewas Russia's Imperial Jeweller. 19. — What a beautiful Easter egg! — Yes,it's a Faberge.20. The two friends bought a Johnny Walkerto celebrate the event. 21. Kurt Vonnegut is writing with the half-embittered, half-amused voice of a later-day Mark Twain.22. Tonight Samantha wore highly polished black Oxfords.

 

Ex. 2. Explain the origin and the meaning of the following common

nouns. Use them in sentences of your own.

A Dracula, a Cartier, a Sony, a Camel, a Marlborough, a complete Shakespeare, a Reebok, a Mauzer, a Lovelace, a Webster, a Don Juan, a Dunhill, the White House, a Barbie, a Jillet, a Petroff, a Stradivarius, an Oscar, a Walkman, a hooligan, bermudas, a Xerox, a Newton.

 

Ex. 3. Read and translate the following. Explain the use of the nouns in bold type.

1. The Uffizi in Florence have more perfect paintings than any other gallery on the planet — not just Tintorettos and Botticellis,but the most arresting works by people like Gentile da Fabriano and Simone Martini. Some Caravaggios,"Bachus" among them, were found in an Uffizi store-room in 1916.

2. The Earl of Cardigangave his name to one of the garments we wear. A cardiganis a knitted jacket that is fastened up the front with buttons or a zip.

3. — Now, how about some Bellinisto celebrate the holiday? — I've forgotten what a Belliniis. I know Bellini,the composer, of course. I mean, I know it's also champagne but what's in it besides that? — Fresh peach juice. — Now I remember! It's a fabulous drink.

4. — Rumor has it that you're suffering from a terminal Don Juan complex. — It's not such a bad reputation to have, when you think about it. After all no man can be a Don Juanunless women are interested in him.

5. Long ago in prerevolutionary France there lived one Etienne de Silhouette,a controller general for Louis XV. Because of his fanatical zeal for raising taxes and slashing expenses and pensions, he enraged royalty and citizens alike, who ran him out of office within eight months. At about the same time that Silhouettewas sacked, the method of making cutouts of profiles by throwing the shadow of the subjects on the screen captured the fancy of the Paris public. Because the process was cheap, the man and the method became associated. Ever since, we have called shadow profiles silhouettes,with a small s.

 

Ex. 4. Translate into English.

I. Какой потрясающий человек! Настоящий Монтекри­сто! 2. Она такая романтичная! Ну просто Наташа Рос­това. 3. — Я вижу, что твой приятель — мастер на все руки. — Да, и ничего не делает толком. 4. Он настоящий Казакова. Почему она его не оставит? 5. — Какие вкус­ные конфеты! — Да, это Моцарт. 6. — Что это за духи? — Это Кензо. 7. На этой стоянке припарковано несколько машин: Мерседес, Хонда, Линкольн, Форд и старенький Москвич. 8. — Тебе нравится эта картина? — Это Пи­кассо. 9. На стенах его кабинета развешено оружие: кольт, винчестер, браунинг, Калашников. 10. Англичанин Ватман изобрел бумагу, которая называется его именем.

II. Ричард Чемберлен купил маленький остров и жи­вет на нем как современный Робинзон Крузо. 12. — Ка­кую сигару ты куришь? — Это Корона. 13. В этом зале выставлены три Рембрандта. 14. Это была современная сказка о принце и Золушке. 15. — Какое очарователь­ное платье! — Неудивительно, ведь это Шанель.

Ex. 5. Match the six common words given below and the following descriptions.

1. Two-piece swimsuits are named after a Pacific atoll on which hydrogen bombs were detonated — a truly explosive and figurative word.

2. The most popular of all humorous verse forms in English comes from a country in Ireland. One theory says that Irish mercenaries used to compose verses in that form about each other and then join in a chorus of "When we get back to town, 'twill be a glorious morning."

3. Nearly two-and-a-half millennia ago, a little band of ten thousand Persians were defeated at the battle of Pheidippides. A courageous runner brought the news of the glorious victory to Athens, and thus gave his name to a long-distance run.

4. A contraction of "St. Mary's of Bethlehem," a sixteenth century London hospital for the insane, has become a word for uproar or confusion.

5. The Pilgrims found in America a wild fowl somewhat similar in appearance to a fowl they had known back in England — a bird that had acquired its name because it was first imported by way of a particular country. Because we perceive this bird as ugly in appearance and voice, we sometimes assign its name to people we don't care for.

6. The inhabitants of an ancient Greek city were noted for their ability to say a lot in a few words. During a siege of their capital, a Roman general sent a note to this city's commander warning that if the Romans captured the city, they would burn it to the ground. From within the city gates came back the terse reply: "If!" The city's name lives on in an adjective that describes spare speech.

a marathon, a bedlam, a bikini, a limerick, a turkey, laconic

Ex. 6. Explain the difference between the following pairs of words and use them in sentences of your own.

1. air — an air

2. beauty — a beauty

3. coffee — a coffee

4. cloth — a cloth

5. dinner — a dinner

6. fire — a fire 8

7. glass — a glass

8. language — a language

9. lemon — a lemon

10. light — a light

11. nature — a nature

12. oak — an oak

13. paper — a paper

14. play — a play

15. power — a power

16. rubber — a rubber

17. ice — an ice

18. stone — a stone

19. study — a study

20. will — a will

Ex. 7. Make up exclamatory sentences according to the model.

Model: competent advice — What competent advice! good question — What a good question!

1. original advice great idea

2. beautiful nature difficult character

3. fashionable furniture big refrigerator

4. modern equipment ancient fortress

5. unexpected money great fortune

6. wonderful music sentimental tune

7. hitting news strange call

8. good progress big success

9. heavy traffic busy line

10. miserable weather nasty day

11. deep knowledge excellent certificate

12. difficult work pleasant job

13. Russian linen linen towel

14. leafy foliage beautiful leaf

Ex. 8. Comment on the nouns in bold type.

1. Harrods has so much to offer. Vintage winesand sparkling champagne,rustic country patesand silky smooth terrines,delicate scented teasand subtle infusions,buttery shortbread biscuits and rich fruity jams,robust picklesand tangy relishes,mature farmhouse cheddarsand crumbly stiltons, hamsand smoked salmonwhich melts in the mouth — all presented in traditional wicker baskets or Harrods boxes. The only thing Harrods can't supply is the weather!2. Good winesare the best buys before Christmas. 3.1 dropped in at the supermarket and bought a few cold meats,and I also made a salad.4. Fruit juicesare ideal in hot weather. 5. My Granny makes four jamsevery year. 6.1 used to eat toastwith orange marmalade.7. France has an excellent range of cheeses.8. A set menu in this Chinese cafe consists of four soups.I prefer a Singaporean seafood soup.It tastes and smells terrific. 9. Herbal teasare my favourite. 10. This shop sells fine foods.11. The finest rumscome from Puerto Rico. 12.1 always have a beerwhile watching television.

13. Can I offer you something? Coffee, tea, a soda,perhaps?

14. Tea is our most social and sociable drink — a part of our daily life for well over 300 years.

Ex. 9. Choose the appropriate noun from the list below for each sentence. Add an article (a/an/the) or plural (s/es) where necessary.

Affection, spirit, information, red, damage, paper, milk,

wonder, left, glass, luggage, wood, cheese, wild, work, water,

wool, salt.

1. Brie and Camembert are only two of the wide variety of ... produced in France. 2. Many Englishmen have explored ... of the Nile. 3. Woodworm can cause a lot of ... if it is not treated. 4. He never really loved her — he just toyed with her ... . 5.1 need ... which will match the other shades of scarlet in the room. 6. "Hamlet" is one of Shakespeare's best known ... . 7.1 didn't know you were short-sighted. How long have you been wearing ... ?

8. He buys ... on the way home to check the race results.

9. Sorry, sir, you can't have whisky. Our licence doesn't allow us to serve ... , only wine or beer. 10. It's a very shy animal and lives in ... ; it's rarely seen in the open fields. 11. This plant is only found in ... of Alaska. 12. To get to the station, you should take ... just after the bridge. 13. The girl in the travel agent's was very helpful and gave me lots of ... about Turkey. 14. Sorry I'm late — some of my ... went missing at the airport. 15. Our dairy produces five different ... . 16. British ... such as cashmere, mohair, lambswool, merino wool come mostly from the Shetlands. 17. ... occurs naturally in sea water. 18. Where are my bathing ... ? 19. The Great Pyramid of Cheops is one of the seven ... of the Ancient World; it's the only one that has survived and exists today.

Ex. 10.Translate into English.

1. Я художник, и я могу оценить красоту. 2. Эта де­вушка — настоящая красавица. 3. Дом сделан из кам­ня. 4. Мне в ботинок попал камешек. 5. Язык обла­дает великой силой. 6. Японский — очень трудный язык. 7. У нее способность видеть будущее. 8. Лимон богат витамином С. 9. Купи лимон к чаю. 10. У него не было (to lack) воли к жизни. 11. У этого мальчика очень сильная воля. 12. Если хотите сделать завеща­ние, обратитесь к нотариусу. 13. Природу нужно ох­ранять. 14. У Эмили очень романтичная натура. 15. Свет необходим для жизни. 16. Вдалеке мы уви­дели огонек. 17. Дания, Голландия, Швейцария славят­ся своими сырами. 18. Фруктовые и овощные соки очень полезны. 19. На завтрак у меня обычно тосты с сыром и апельсиновый сок. 20. Италия и Франция знамениты своими винами. 21. Август. На Сицилии начался сбор цитрусовых фруктов.

Ex. 11.Comment on the nouns in bold type.

1. According to modern standards my familyisn't big.

2. My familyare early birds. 3.The boardconsists of twelve people. 4.1 know what the boardthink of me. They regard me as the spoiled granddaughter of a rich and powerful woman. And the boardare very aware of that. 5. This councilis responsible for looking after roads. 6. The councilhave been promising to mend the fences, doors and windows for years. 7. The publicstop and stare. 8. "You could join us," he suggested helpfully. "We're a jolly crowd." 9. The governmenthas cut back on public expenditure. 10. Some people said darkly that the Governmentwere behind it. 11. The staffare going to buy a leaving present for their boss. 12. His staffis very efficient. 13. This teamplays for Spain. 14. The teamare training hard for the coming match. 15. Statistics is the study of figures. 16. Statistics are often misleading. 17. Politicsis a popular topic now. 18. What are his politics?19. The jurywere in disagreement. 20. The juryhas announced its verdict.

Ex. 12.Comment on the nouns in bold type.

1. The policeare here and they are doing their best, sir.

2. The local policehave closed this night club. 3.The policewere assisted by private detectives. 4. The cattleare in the fields. 5. — Where are the people?— They've gone to the briefing. 6. Her poultryare the finest in the whole village. 7. The Roman Catholic clergyare stationed in Vatican. 8. — Who are those people?— They are tourists. 9. Diceare used in many board games. 10. The peopleat the interview were very helpful. 11. Hey, people,what are you doing? 12. How different are the beliefs of various peoplesacross the world! 13. This is a warlike people.14. The peoplesof the Commonwealth will have a new monetary unit.

Ex. 13.Read and translate the sentences paying particular attention to the nouns in bold type.

1. These scalesare not correct. 2. My glasses have become too weak for me. 3.The scissorsare blunt. 4. My kid's pyjamasare made of cotton. 5. These tightswere made in Italy. 6. Don't you think your trousersare too short? 7. What are your earringsmade of? 8. The goodshave arrived. 9. Give my best regardsto your family. 10. The surroundingswere unfamiliar to him. 11. The cleaner collected all the floor sweepingsand potato peelingslying near the rubbish pipe. 12. My wageshave risen considerably lately. 13. The outskirtsof this town are shabby looking. 14. Her clothesare very trendy. 15. Clothesmake the man: the old saying is rather to the point. 16. Clothesare no longer something one doesn't discuss. Clothesare part of the image.

Ex. 14.Use the right form of the verb be.

1. The information about this company ... encouraging.

2. All the furniture in this office ... the latest design.

3. My knowledge of German ... very limited. 4. These shorts ... too long. 5. They ... a big family, with many branches. 6. This equipment ... for camping. 7. The scissors ... here a minute ago. 8. The Government ... of the opinion that money in the accounts ... siphoned out of the country. 9. These trousers ... too tight. 10. The weather ... fabulous in Italy in early autumn. 11. These stairs ... dangerous. 12. Where ... your clothes made? 13. The headphones on my new walkman ... great. 14. ... the scales over there electronic? 15. There ... a hair on my dinner plate. 16. Yesterday's homework ... rather difficult. 17. Her luggage ... on the scales already. 18. Your advice ... very timely. Thank you. 19. The news ... too good to be true. 20. The team ... no more than seven young men. 21. The hospital staff ... all very young. 22. Judging by the fact that Malfoy usually had the best of everything, his family ... rolling in gold. 23. She came from a large, close-knit, and loving clan who ... always there to protect and help each other.

Ex. 15.Translate into English.

1. Сведения только что поступили, и секретарша про­сматривает их. 2. Врач дал нам так много советов, что мы не знаем, какими из них воспользоваться. 3. Упорный труд — ключ к успеху. 4. Это творчес­кая работа, однако знания здесь тоже очень важны. 5. Ваши успехи нас радуют. 6. Я вижу, что мои со­веты тебе помогают, не правда ли? 7. — А что думает об этом полиция? — Она обескуражена этим пре­ступлением. 8. — Мне нужны хорошие новые джин­сы. — Хорошие джинсы стоят дорого. 9. Моя зарп­лата не столь высока, чтобы обедать в ресторанах. 10. Ее одежда — это в основном джинсы, свитера и майки. 11. Осторожнее, ступени очень крутые. 12. По­лиция все еще ищет угонщиков самолета, но пока не задержала их. 13. Бильярд — его любимая игра. 14. Его специальность — экономика. 15. А что гово­рит твоя семья? Она согласна на твой брак с Викто­ром? 16. Штат этой фирмы состоит из тридцати че­ловек. 17. Труппа этого театра — это в основном вы­пускники ГИТИСа. 18. Сегодня весенняя погода. 19. Какая великолепная сегодня погода! 20. Обожаю бродить по лесу в грибную погоду. 21. Она работает в своем саду в любую погоду.

Number

Ex. 16.Give the plural of

A. A pin, a hat, a fox, a baby, a day, potato, a volcano, a piano, a photo, a knife, a roof, a half, a leaf, a cliff, a chief, a life, a family, a queue, a bath, a berry, a valley, a century, a salmon, a taxi, a person, a penny, a watch, a virtuoso, a lily, a woodworm. 14

B. A man, a woman, a German, a foot, a tooth, a sheep, a ship, a fish, an ox, a fox, a child, a fireman, a mouse, a swine, a house, a louse, a goose, a mongoose, a deer, a means, a series, a species, an aircraft, an offspring, a Swiss, a Japanese, a Maltese, a Portuguese, a Chinese, a Milanese.

C. A passer-by, a mother-in-law, a room-mate, a forget-me-not, a merry-go-round, a fellow-worker, a man-of-war, a school-inspector, a commander-in-chief, a boy-messenger, a personnel-manager, a woman-driver, a man-servant, a hanger-on, a face-lift, a spoonful, a cupful, a boyfriend, a grown-up, an office-block, a workmate.

Ex. 17.Translate into English.

1. Эта реклама утверждает, что если пользоваться пас­той Блендамед, то у вас будут красивые белые зубы. 2. Я сладкоежка. 3. Трое полицейских постоянно ох­раняют этот банк. 4. Милиция уже здесь. Она делает все, чтобы найти компромисс с грабителями. 5. В под­вале дома есть мыши. Вчера утром у двери я увидел маленькую очаровательную мышку. 6. Нам пришлось остановить машину, так как два оленя медленно пере­ходили дорогу. 7. В этом пруду много рыбок. 8. Боль­шие дети — большие заботы. 9. В нашей школе рабо­тает двадцать пять женщин и пять мужчин. 10. Рыба­ки в море. Сейчас сезон ловли рыбы. 11. Домашний скот Тома состоит из лошадей, коров, быков, овец, сви­ней. 12. Моя тетя, которая живет в деревне, держит домашнюю птицу: кур, уток, гусей, индеек. 13. Я очень люблю фрукты. Они придают мне силы (энергию). 14. У нас сегодня гости, многие из них фруктарианцы. Схо­ди на рынок и купи много-много разных фруктов. 15. Скот продают и покупают на этом рынке. 16. Ми­ланцы гордятся своим оперным театром. 17. — Где твои новые часы? — К сожалению, я их потерял. 18. Го­ворят, что женщины-водители более аккуратны, чем мужчины. 19. Это странное явление озадачивает гео­логов. 20. В наше время мыши и крысы часто рассмат­риваются как домашние животные.

Ex. 18.Consult the table and give the plural of the following foreign words.

  Ending Regular plural Latin/Greek plural
a -us -uses -i
b -a -as -ae
с -um -urns -a
d -ex -exes -ices
e -ix -ixes -ices
f -is -ises -es
ё -on -ons -a

a cactus, fungus, radius, stimulus, genius;

b alga, formula (in science), vertebra, antenna;

с bacterium, curriculum, datum, medium, memorandum,

stratum, millennium; d index (in mathematics, in books); e appendix (in books, in medicine); f analysis, axis, basis, crisis, diagnosis, hypothesis, oasis,

parenthesis, thesis; g criterion, phenomenon.

Ex. 19.Translate into English.

1. Слово «тысячелетие» в английском языке проис­ходит от латинского слова "mille", которое означа­ет «тысяча». 2. На поверхности этой планеты про­исходят странные явления. 3. Многие школы име­ют разные программы. 4. Каковы критерии оценки этих работ? 5. Мы получили несколько меморанду­мов сегодня утром. 6. Каково содержание этой бу­тылки? 7. Каково обычно содержание сахара в кро­ви? 8. Фундамент дома сделан из камня. 9. Земля вращается вокруг своей оси. 10. Путешественники продвигались по Сахаре, и им постоянно мерещились оазисы. 11. Каков окончательный диагноз? 12. Какту­сы растут в пустынях. 13. Мы из разных социальных слоев. 14. Многие бактерии вызывают болезни. 15. Это действительно уникальное явление. 16. Он один из ге­ниев. 17. В этом кувшине духи (джины). 18. У моей бабушки сильные боли в верхних позвонках. 19. Эти данные надежны. 20. Интересно, что мы увидим в но­вом, двадцать первом веке? 21. Кризисы в экономике отражаются на уровне жизни людей. 22. Содержание этого пакета неизвестно.

Ex. 20.Read and translate the sentences. Comment on the words in bold type.

1. Moneycan't buy happiness, and itcertainly can't buy health. Years ago Blackie told me that money was meantto be spent and he was correct. Whoever said that money doesn't buyhappiness was misinformed, in my opinion. It buysa lot of happiness for a lot of people. And frankly, I'd rather be miserable with money than without it.

2. English money isnot acceptedhere. 3. All Bess's money goeson clothes. 4. Her linen comesfrom Holland. 5. The money was sentby cheque. 6. The project received community monies.7. Public moneyis like water, everyone helps himself to it. 8. We've got a fascinating piece of newsfor you. 9.News travelspretty fast. 10. I'm sorry to say that there are "friends" who delight in breaking bad news.11. They want adviceon how to do it. 12. We got an advice notefrom the firm. 13. The scout brought valuable information. Ithelped a lot. 14. Doesthis information interestyou? 15. What hard work!But it's rewarding. 16.1 like all Chopin's works.17. The worksis closed today. 18. It's perfect weatherfor flying today. 19. She's wearing galoshes in all weathers.20. If you think about money positively, it will come to you. 21. Borrow money from pessimists — they don't expect it back. 22. Money isthe root of all wealth.

Ex.21.Translate into English.

1. Я помню все ваши советы. Они всегда были кста­ти. 2. Тебе помогают мои советы? 3. Это прекрасная новость. 4. Сегодня чудесная погода. 5. Все эти сведе­ния в компьютере. 6. — Чьи это деньги? — Они мои. 7. Какая нудная работа! 8. Только работа поможет тебе забыть все. 9. Что нового? 10. Каждый журналист зна­ет, как трудно добывать новости, особенно сенсацион­ные. 11. Успех, как правило, зависит от упорного тру­да и удачи. 12. Фильм имел большой успех. 13. Твои успехи очень всех радуют. 14. Его знания очень об­ширны. 15. Деньги не интересуют его. 16. Он пытает­ся получить секретные сведения. Они ему очень нуж­ны. 17. Это постельное белье прекрасного качества. 18. Осень. Листва желтеет. 19. Эта мебель уникальна, она стоит целое состояние. 20. — Из чего сделана эта мебель? — Из бука. 21. — Не могу понять, откуда у тебя берутся деньги. — Они любят меня и находят меня. 22. Деньги — вещь очень важная. Особенно ког­да их нет. (Э. М. Ремарк)

Ex. 22.Read and translate the sentences. Comment on the meaning of the words in bold type.

l.The fishermen are out in all weathers. If you don't catch any fish,there's no pay. 2. My employer was an importer of rare tropical fish. 3.Try this fish.Everybody who tries it, likes it. Everybody who likes it, loves it. 4. They scraped a living by catching crab, lobster and crayfish. 5.Meredith peered down into the pond. "There really are fishin it," she said sounding surprised. 6. Forget him! There are many other fishin the sea. 7. He had a big collection of minerals, insects and fishes.8. He studies the fishesof the Atlantic. 9. What anodd fishhe is! 10. They've been fishing since dawn but so far haven't caught a single fish.11. There are carp, trout, pikein this river. 12. Areyou fishingout for a compliment? 13. A flying fishcan project itself through the air at a speed of about thirty-five miles per hour.

14. The stars glittered in the sky like so many fish.

15. The largest of all fishis the Whale Shark. It may grow up to 15 metres long and may weigh over 14 tons, over twice as much as an average African elephant! Though it has three thousand teeth, it will never bite you. This sea giant is quite harmless. It eats only tiny shrimp and fish.

Ex. 23.Translate into English.

1. В этой реке много рыбы. 2. Рыба проплывает боль­шие расстояния. 3. Эта девочка плавает как рыбка. 4. Если бы у меня была золотая рыбка, то я попроси­ла бы ее исполнить три желания. 5. Не грусти, свет клином на нем не сошелся. 6. — Какая странная рыба! У нее один глаз. — Это результат плохой эко­логии. 7. Он странный тип. 8. Рыба более полезна, чем мясо. 9. Моя любимая еда — рыба с жареным карто­фелем. 10. Ты опять выуживаешь (to fish out for) у меня информацию? 11. Рыбаки поймали полдюжины форелей. 12. — Что это за рыба? — Это летающая рыба. 13. Посмотри, как красиво плавают рыбки в пруду! 14. — Сколько рыб ты поймал в воскресенье? — Ни одной, но я получил удовольствие от рыбалки. 15. В аквариуме у Николаса было семь рыбок, но кошка съела двух, так что осталось пять рыбок. 16. Птички летают, рыбки плавают.

Ex. 24.Read and retell the following text in indirect speech.

Flying Fish

One day a sailor came from a voyage and said to his mother, "I have been on many voyages and have seen a lot of strange things. My companions and I once rowed for six days in an open boat and found ourselves in a sea of milk, in the middle of which was a mountain of sugar. I noticed too that the milk tasted quite fresh. On another occasion we came across an island of cheese and it tasted like Dutch cheese. But the greatest wonder of all the wonders I have ever seen are the flying fish of the Southern Pacific, which fly for quite a long time when they are pursued by their enemies." His mother thought, shook her head and replied, "I cannot believe that. Seas of milk and islands of cheese there may be, and I quite believe that they exist. But flying fish are out of the question. Nothing and nobody will make me believe it, unless I see those wonders with my own eyes!"

Ex. 25. A. Read and translate the sentences. Comment on the meanings of the word fruit.

1. Fruitis rich in mineral salts and vitamins. 2. Is fruitcheap this year? 3. What fruitsdo you cultivate here? 4. To make a fruit salad we shall need different fruits. 5.A fruitarianis a person who eats only fruit.6. What an exotic fruit!7. Very soon you'll enjoy the fruitsof your hard work. 8. The fruitsof nature belong to all mankind. 9. It was a Sunday and no one was in the mood for a lecture about fruit.10. The strawberry is a beautiful and delicious fruit.

B. Translate into English.

1. Англия ввозит много фруктов. Их доставляют из Франции, Испании, Израиля. 2. Вымой фрукты и поло­жи их в вазу. 3. На Сицилии растут различные цитру­совые фрукты. 4. У рябины очень красивые плоды. 5. Ну что же, теперь он пожинает плоды своих махинаций.

6. Его успех — это плод упорного труда. 7. Абрикос — король фруктов. Это очень полезный фрукт. 8. На тре­тье у нас будут фрукты и мороженое. 9. Для многих людей фрукты очень дорогие, они не могут позволить их себе каждый день. 10. Различные фрукты использу­ются в косметологии. 11. Фрукты полезны, в них много витаминов и минеральных солей. 12. На наших рын­ках сейчас продается много экзотических фруктов.

Case

Ex. 26.Replace the of-phrase by the noun in the possessive case.

1. The friend of my mother. 2. The speech of the President. 3. The farm of old McDonald. 4. The novels by D. Steel. 5. The hobbies of the children. 6. The poems by Burns. 7. The duties of a man. 8. A conference of doctors. 9. The life of a bodyguard. 10. The policy of France. 11. The streets of London. 12. The bank of the river. 13. The rays of the sun. 14. The way of nature. 15. The teas of India. 16. The history of the world. 17. The difficulties of the companies. 18. The crew of a ship. 19. A holiday for a week. 20. A break for five minutes.

Ex. 27.Read and translate the sentences. Comment on the use of the possessive case.

1. 1. By anybody's standard this company was a good buy.

2. Douglas's voice trembled, "What I wouldn't give to be in his shoes." 3. She lay curled in a ball, staring into the fire's bright flames. 4. Derek's brother's name is Gregory. 5. She took a slice with a piece of last year's cheese on it. 6. In the evening I dined in the hotel's restaurant. 7. He reserved a seat on the following week's bus. 8.1 picked up a city map at the station's tourist office. 9. Fascinated, Harry thumbed through the rest of the envelope's contents.

II. 1. We had to move everything out of Tommy and Max's room into Dennis's. 2. It's somebody else's idea, not mine. 3. Michael works at Bill and Susan's firm, who are partners. 4. You can't build happiness on somebody else's unhappiness, at least that's my opinion. 5. They got a fax from the Pakistani Prime Minister's office. 6. The Queen of England's palace is a quarter of an hour's ride from the centre of London.

III. 1. Meredith linked her arm through Patsy's. 2. Now that we grew up, he intended to live by those standards, which were his father's. 3. Her eyes met her friend's.

4. Mrs. Pell's response was as warm as her daughter's.

5. She didn't have a mind like a woman's at all, more like a man's.

IV. 1. She came to England from Odessa years ago. Could it be that she's a relative of theirs? 2. Ben was such a favourite of my father's. 3. Grinning, he said, "Aren't you going to introduce that new partner of Stephen's to us?" 4. He hoped he had managed to avert an awkward discussion about that imaginary husband of Emma's. 5. That little boy of our neighbour's is looking for trouble. 6. That was a favourite game of his grandfather's, pulling surprises out of his pockets.

V. 1. — "So where exactly is this party?" my dad asked. — "It's at the Ferguson's." 2. Then he drove me to Alex's. 3. Her husband and all her kids are coming to Aunt Emily's. 4. We dropped in at the baker's for a French stick. 5. Occasionally I have a snack at McDonald's. 6. Sainsbury's is where teachers, vicars and suchlike do their food shopping. 7. Cadbury's make fine chocolate.

watchmaker's, the optician's, the doctor's, the dentist's, the confectioner's, the (dry) cleaner's, the stationer's, the hairdresser's (the barber's)

Ex. 28.Answer the following questions, using the phrases given below.

Where do you go if you want to ...

1. get fast food? 2. buy some vegetables? 3. have your eyes examined? 4. buy some nails and a hammer? 5. get your hair cut? 6. have some clothes cleaned? 7. buy some cigars and cigarettes? 8. buy a wedding ring? 9. get pens, pencils, paper? 10. buy cakes and chocolate? 11. buy a lot of small different things? 12. have your teeth examined? 13. buy some medicine? 14. buy some meat? 15. buy some flowers? 16. get some information about travelling? 17. have your watch repaired? 18. buy the most expensive things in London? 19. have your pet examined? 20. have advice about your health?

the florist's, the butcher's, the greengrocer's, the supermarket, the travelling agent's, McDonald's, the ironmonger's, the jeweller's, Harrods, the vet's, the chemist's (the drugstore), the tobacconist's, the in three (hours) time. 7. (Boys) clothes wear out very quickly. 8. How much does a (boy) jacket cost these days? 9. What's the name of (Charles) partner? 10. Are (policemen) uniforms comfortable? 11. Prague isn't more than a (day) journey from here. 12. Look at the roses in (Mrs. Jones) garden. 13. I'm trying to attract the (waitress) attention. 14. This church was twenty (years) work. 15. The oceans cover 70% of the (earth) surface. 16. Now comes the (journey) end.

Ex;. 29. Add s/ 's/ s ' where necessary.

1. Student grades depend on their tests. 2. Charles met Helen at my parents house. 3. We all went to Charles wedding. 4. The Brown painted their cottage green. 5. The Brown cottage is shining like a new pin. 6. The juror gave a fair verdict. 7. The juror verdict was fair. 8. Tedd is driving someone else car today. 9. Let's drop in at "The Smith". 10. Women fashions change more frequently than men. 11. Their house stood on the water edge. 12. The sun rays give us light, warmth and energy. 13. Last night game was something. 14.1 need some children toys for my small nephew. 15. By going to the sale I hope to get my money worth. 16. His work was much better than many other student works. 17. Frederick was satisfied with his semester work.

Ex. 30.Paraphrase the sentences using the possessive case where possible.

1. The beauty of Ireland is really breathtaking. 2. The coats of the children need cleaning. 3. The cover of the book is very bright. 4. The policy of the company is still not clear to me. 5. The construction of the new metro line has started. 6. The TV programmes of last night were very interesting. 7.1 was shocked by the opinion of Bess. 8. The children had a holiday for a week. 9. We need to paint the roof of the house. 10. The back of the chair was too low. 11. There was a lamp at the head of the bed.

Ex. 31.Use the words in brackets in the possessive case

1. Last week was my (daughter) sixth birthday. 2. (Child­ren) toys are very attractive these days. 3. Have you ever met (Denis) wife? 4. I'll see you in an (hour) time. 5. The house will be sold in two (week) time. 6. We'll be in Paris

Ex. 32.Read the following phrases and find their Russian equivalents. Learn them by heart.

To one's heart's content; at one's fingers' ends; at a hair's breadth; in the mind's eye; one's money's worth; out of harm's way; at arm's length (reach); for Heaven's sake; for Goodness' sake; for appearance's sake; at death's door; to be nobody's fool; to know someone for donkey's years; at razor's edge; (at) a stone's throw from...; to be at one's wit's end; at gun's point; a bird's eye view.

Ex. 33. A. Read and translate the following sentences, paying attention to the phrases in bold type.

1. He held her at arm's length, scrutinizing her intently. 2. I've never grown to like him, not one iota, even though I've known him and his family for donkey's years. 3. What saved the situation was that Alan's office was only (at) a stone's throw from the club. 4. In his mind's eye, Maxim pictured the people who were important in his life. 5. My mother loves the house and the grounds and she can garden away to her heart's content. 6. We are at our wit's end how to solve the dilemma. 7. The guns were now hidden, out of harm's way. 8. She made a will at death's door. 9. Mind, we did it just for old times' sake. 10. From this tower you can get a bird's eye view of the city.

B. Make up ten sentences of your own using the phrases given in exercise 32.

Ex. 34.Translate into English.

1. Завтрашняя программа очень напряженная. 2. Эд­вард один из близких друзей моей сестры. 3. Я обыч­но встречаюсь со своими родственниками в доме у бабушки и дедушки. 4. Эта девушка — одна из сту­денток моей мамы. 5. У него маленькие ноги, как у женщины. 6. Ему очень нужна была машина, и он вос­пользовался машиной своего босса. 7. Это замечание Феликса было совсем некстати. 8. Мой проект откло­нили точно так же, как и проект Джона. 9. Как же мне не нравится этот новый друг Бэсс! 10. Это не мои учебники, они Макса. 11. Экзамены позади, теперь мы можем вволю развлекаться. 12. Ради бога, пойми же наконец, что ты ходишь по острию бритвы. 13. Это не займет много времени, до моего дома рукой подать. 14. Не пытайся обмануть меня, я далеко не дура.

15. Давай уйдем отсюда от греха подальше. 16. Я счи­таю, что приличия ради нам нужно согласиться на их приглашение. 17. Романы Ильфа и Петрова попу­лярны у многих поколений читателей. 18. В течение четырех лет ты держала меня на приличном рассто­янии, а теперь я, кажется, не могу избавиться от тебя. 19. Машина мистера Джоунса— последняя модель Мерседеса. 20. Субботним утром любой человек мо­жет выступать сколько его душе угодно в Уголке Ора­тора в Гайд-Парке.

Ex. 35. A. Read the following phrases and explain their meaning.

I.Noah's ark 2. Pandora's box 3. Hobson's choice 4. Rubik's cube 5. Parkinson's disease 6. Aesop's fables 7. Achilles' heel 8. Aladdin's lamp 9. Murphy's law 10. Cleopatra's needle 11. Caesar's wife 12. Christie's 13. Tiffany's 14. Love's old sweet song 15. An old wife's tale.

B. Fill in the titles of some works of literature.

1. ...'s Adventures in Wonderland 2. ...'s Cabin 3. ...'s Choice 4. ...'s Complaint 5. ...'s Lover 6. ...'s Travels 7. ...'s Way 8. ...'s Web 9. ...'s Pilgrimage 10. ...'s House 11. ...'s Baby.

Gender

Ex. 36.Give the nouns of the opposite sex.

A. a boy, a husband, a brother, a father, a nephew, an uncle, a son, a king, a gentleman, a lad, a bridegroom, a monk, a headmaster, a bachelor, Mr., a cock, a bull, a man

B. an actor, a count, a duke, an emperor, a mayor, a god, a host, a heir, a manager, a millionaire, a prince, a poet, a waiter, a widow, a lion, a tiger, a hero, a czar, a giant, a businessman.

Ex. 37.Explain whether the nouns below denote male or female people.

An agent, a client, a cousin, a doctor, a mermaid, a friend, a foreigner, a guest, a client, a lawyer, a neighbour, a parent, a journalist, a person, a scientist, a stranger, a student, a visitor, a teacher, a witch, a magician, a clown, a fairy, an amazon, a brunette, a sailor, a spy, a ballet dancer, a ballerina, an angel, a wizard.

Ex. 38.Read and translate the sentences. Explain how gender of the nouns is expressed in them.

1. Ireland! She is our Motherland. 2. The. New Year brought more disastrous news for Britain and her allies. 3. Mine is a fine car. She has never let me down. 4. You can take a horse to the water but you can't make him drink. 5. — What a fine yacht! — Yes, and she cost me a fortune. 6.1 can't guarantee at all that this plane will get down on the field. She's just as likely to pan down or overshoot. We'll probably try to bring her in from the east. I want you to unlock the autopilot, it will hold her straight and level. 7.1 reached for my little dog and picked her up. 8. The novel is about Japan's major problems, the adoption of Western style 26

and the preservation of her own. 9. He called her "Beautiful Dreamer". She was one of the most magnificent oceangoing yachts ever designed by the best naval architects. 10. My cat Trixie was such a gay little animal; she always brought a smile to my face and made me laugh.

Ex. 39.Read the text and retell it.

Gender Benders

Correct grammar beats political correctness, even in France. Each of the seven women in the French Govern­ment is in future to be addressed as Madame La Ministreaccording to the decree of the Prime Minister. But language laughs at legislators, for French grammar recognizes no governments other than its own rules. Ministre,like most titles and descriptions of professions in French, is of the masculine gender. The designation of a doctor, director or mayor is masculine, even when the holder of that post is a woman. Linguistic gender has no connection with sex or "natural" gender. Female sailors and farmers were rare in Ancient Rome. But their occupations are in the feminine gender in Latin, the mother of all the Romance languages. A spoon is masculine in German (der Loffel);a fork is feminine (die Gabel);and a knife is neuter (das Messer).Suspicious French feminists have recently published research suggesting that words of the feminine gender describe domestic items such as une casserole(a saucepan), while masculine words carry more prestige, like un livre(a book). Their evidence is gibberish. Even in languages such as English, where gender is mercifully vestigial and recalled only in pronouns, countries, shipsand vehiclesare called "she", as well as "it". Gender is not a matter of feminine stereotypes, for "she" can be used in anger. Guns, tanksand trucksthat refuse to work are still cursed as feminine.

This question of French gender is being debated with fit passion, as some people care more for political correctness than grammar. Language does evolve, but not for official circulars. So, why not go the whole way and have La Ministresse?If the French are starting to find gender odd, then it will fade away, as it has in English. Even French female masculine ministers have no right (or power) to alter French grammar.

Ex. 40.Are you "politically correct"? Which of the following terms do you use?

1. a) Mrs b) Ms

2. a) a chairman b) a chairperson

3. a) a fireman b) a firefighter

4. a) a pensioner b) a senior citizen

5. a) the handicapped b) the disabled c) the differently abled

6. a) a Red Indian b) a Native American

7. a) ladies b) women

8. a) a congressman b) a member of Congress

9. a) a mailman b) a mail carrier

10. a) mankind b) humanity

11. a) a policeman(woman) b) a police officer

Test Your Knowledge

Ex. 41.Make up sentences with the following pairs of words to show the difference between them.

Chicken — a chicken, experience — an experience, grammar — a grammar, hair — a hair, iron — an iron, lace — a lace, life — a life, room — a room, sight — a sight, speech — a speech, sport — a sport, success — a success, time — a time, wood — a wood, work — a work, whisky — a whisky, fish — a fish, fruit — a fruit.

Ex. 42.Use the correct form of the verb.

1. The class (has/have) its final test on Friday. 2. The class (is/are) working on their individual projects today. 3. The crew (was/were) asleep in their bunks. 4. The committee (is/are) ready to make the programme public. 5. The family (is/are) fighting among themselves constantly. 6. The fish in the aquarium (is/are) waiting for their daily feeding. 7. The press (was/were) requested to show their credentials to the guard. 8. The Portuguese (is/are) fortunate to have such a beautiful coastline. 9. The criteria for promotion (is/are) clearly stated. 10. Supernatural phenomena (is/are) of great interest to many people. 11. My family (live/lives) in a private house. 12. My family (is/are) early birds. 13. The police (think/thinks) it's the Mafia's doing. 14. What (is/are) the contents of the note? 15. There (was/were) many fish in this river some twenty years ago. 16. The police (was/ were) thorough in their examination of the murder site.

Ex. 43.Read the text and comment on the nouns in bold type.

Emma's shop was heavily stocked, and she anticipated a brisk business in the next few days. This was her third Christmas in the shop, and she was convinced she would have a lot of customers, both her regulars and new ones. Emma gave the shop a final glance, her eyes critically seeking out the tiniest imperfection. Not one was visible. The innumerable shelves, running around the walls and soaring up to the ceiling, held tins of ham, pork, and game,great black-and-gold canisters of varied teas, French glazed fruits, marzipan fruitsfrom Germany, and her own bottled fruits,vegetables, and jams.Ranged below were jars of candied peel,glazed cherries, mincemeat,and cranberry and apple saucesfor the Christmas turkeysand geese.Three huge barrels, to the right of the side counter, were filled to overflowing with nuts, apples, and oranges for the children's traditional Christmas stockings, and the faint aroma of fruitwafted sweetly on the air to blend with the mingled scents of the pungent herbs and spices from the Indies, the fragrance of the newly baked confectionery, and the mouth-watering smells of cheesesand cooked meats.Oh, how she loved her shop! Here she was secure, far away from the Fairleys and protected from them. She thought, too, and with enormous pleasure, of the forthcoming sales and her spiralling profits, and her face immediately broke into a smile.

(after B. Bradford)

Ex. 44.Translate into English.

I. Мысленным взглядом Эрик вновь увидел родитель­ский дом, который стоял на берегу реки. 2. Ферма ста­рого Макдональда была подобна раю. Мы увидели мно­го рыб, плавающих в пруду, кудрявых овечек, лежащих под огромными дубами. 3. — Какие великолепные часы! — Да, это Ролекс. 4. Сорок пенсов — не такие уж большие деньги. 5. Можешь вволю наслаждаться едой и напитками. Это не будет тебе стоить и пенни. 6. Я знаю его очень, очень давно и должна сказать, что он далеко не дурак. 7. Эти новости меня не удивляют. Я ожидал их. 8. Это феномен, это совершенно необъяс­нимая вещь! 9. Перестаньте спорить, хотя бы приличия ради. 10. Жюри было не в состоянии вынести решение. 11. Ума не приложу как выйти из этой сложной ситуа­ции. 12. Давай заглянем в кондитерскую и перекусим. 13. От дома Майкла до госпиталя Святого Томаса ру­кой подать. 14. Агент был на волосок от провала. 15. Я должна просмотреть банк данных и вывести сведения по этому делу. Они нужны начальнику. 16. Полиция прочесывает (to comb) город в поисках грабителей. 17. Почему полиция не принимает эффективных мер против преступности? 18. Музей купил потрясающую картину на аукционе Сотбис — Дега. 19. Музей Шер­лока Холмса находится в Лондоне на Бейкер-стрит. 20. Он написал книгу о сегодняшней Британии.

Chapter II.

THE ARTICLE

Ex. 45. Use the necessary form of the indefinite article (a or an).

... academy, ... album, ... bright album, ... actor, ... great actress, ... arch, ... marble arch, ... chance, ... unlucky chance, ... dove, ... ear, ... elf, ... tiny elf, ... horse, ... hour, ... long hour, ... institute, ... lemon, ... mill, ... obelisk, ... opera, ... Italian opera, ... owl, ... paper, ... rabbit, ... quarter, ... train, ... wing, ... voyage, ... year.

Ex. 46. Change the nouns in the following sentences into the plural and make all the necessary changes.

1. She is a truly good person. 2. I have a special treat for tea today, a strawberry cake. 3. Never trust a stranger! 4. It's a question of principle, of ethics. 5. She is a most dependable business partner. 6. The girl was wearing a sheepskin coat. 7. That's a sensation, sir. 8. There is a small difficulty, madam. 9. He is a tea-taster. 10. Robert is a loving family man. 11. What an exotic creature! 12. The city has a proud history. 13. You are a romantic fool. 14. It's a medieval saga. 15. This young man is such a virtuoso at playing the piano.

Ex. 47. Change the nouns in the following sentences into the Singular and make all the necessary changes.

1. They are superb actresses. 2. What enchanting moments! 3. These are unusual stories, very moving. 4. They turned out to be fine illustrators. 5. They are tough guys. 6. Oh, what fantastic houses! 7. There are a few coffee-shops in this street. 8. These are recipes for customers to consider. 9. They seem to be rather thrilling prospects. 10. Teachers are educated people. 11. Buskers are street musicians who play outside cinemas or in the metro. 12. Accountants keep financial records. 13. Teen­agers are people between thirteen and nineteen years of age. 14. These are ver




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