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The Past Simple and the Present Perfect




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ex. 260.Say if the given below words and phrases express finished or unfinished time. Make up sentences of your own with them to Illustrate the difference.

Today, yesterday, this morning, ever, never, always, when I was nine, until I was nine, since I was nine, after I got up, since I got up, three years ago, for the last three years, this year, last year, for the last year, in 1998, since 1997, recently, lately, so far, just now, just, up till now.

Ex.261.Use the Past Simple or the Present Perfect of the verbs in Brackets.

1. — You (see) Jane today? — Yes, I (see) her at about nine, but I not (see) her since then. 2. I always want to go to Scotland, but I never (manage) to get there. 3. Bob (want) to be a bodyguard until he (be) fifteen. 4. — We not (see) much of Helen lately. — You (see) her? 5.1 (be) ill a lot last year. 6.1 (be) ill for two weeks. 7. — How's your new job? — Everything (be) all right up to now. 8. Nelly (go) to America on holiday ten years ago, and she (live) there ever since. 9. He (climb) quite a lot of mountains, but he never (be) up Everest. 10. You ever (study) a musical instrument? 11. Alex (have) an enormous amount of work last week. 12. We (have) a very busy week. We need a break. 13. When you first (fall in love)? 14. How long ago you (meet)? 15. How long you (be) in your present job?

 

Ex 262.Translate into English

1. Я видела этот фильм, когда была подростком. С тех пор я его не видела. 2. В последнее время она не ест ничего сладкого. Она худеет. 3. Они встретились много лет назад. Это была их единственная встреча. Они больше не встречались. 4. Вчера он совершил герои­ческий поступок. 5. Пока что я не совершил ничего особенного. 6. — Давно вы приехали? — А мы и не уезжали, мы здесь несколько часов. 7. Они долго 151



встречались, но затем расстались. 8. Я так давно не встречалась с друзьями. 9. Мы давно делали ремонт, лет десять назад. 10. Они так давно не ремонтировали квар­тиру. 11. Когда-то, очень давно он рассказал мне эту историю. 12. Мы так давно не разговаривали с тобой. Как жизнь? 13. Они пробыли здесь очень долго и уеха­ли час назад. 14. Они так давно не навещали нас. Мы соскучились по ним. 15. Мы встречались на днях. У них все хорошо. 16. Давай встретимся на днях, хоро­шо? 17. Это случилось на днях, два или три дня назад. 18. На днях вы получите наш окончательный ответ.

Ex. 263.Use the right form of the verbs in brackets

Nina: Guess what? I have wonderful news. Vladimir and I are engaged.

Erika: What! You...engaged? It's all so sudden.

N: I not (tell) anyone yet. This is the first time I (speak) about it.

E: But are you sure you know what you (do)? I never (meet) Vladimir. Who is he?

N: He's the most wonderful person I ever (know).

E: Where you (meet) him?

N: I (meet) him in History class last semester.

E: Oh, he's a student. He (finish) college yet?

N: He not (graduate), but he already (finish) most of his courses.

E: How will you support yourselves?

N: We already (discuss) that. I am going to work until he (finish) school.

E: Nina, you never (be) on your own. Has he? He ever (work) before? He ever (live) alone? N: No, but that's not important. What matters is that we're in love.

E: How you (know) you're really in love? You not (have) much experience with men.

N: Yes, Vladimir is the first one I ever (fall in love with). But I feel as if I always (know) him. E: I know, I know. Love (make) the world go round. But so far you not (convince) me that you know what you're doing. Why you not (wait) for a while?

Ex. 264.Read and retell the following stories.

A Surprise Birthday

A dear old lady often comes into our shop for her newspaper. A week ago she said excitedly, "It's my eightieth birthday today." I asked what she was doing to celebrate the event and

she said, "Nothing." Her son wasn't visiting and she would be on her own. There were several customers waiting to be served and I told them it was this lady's birthday. We all started to

sing Happy Birthday and then filled a bag with Crиme Eggs and gave it to her. Her eyes were full of tears as she said, "I'm having a great day!" After she'd left, everyone paid their share towards her gift — and then we all reached for our handkerchiefs.

Wedding a la Mode

The bus-stop I usually wait at when returning from shopping is right opposite a church. A few days ago I watched a very fashionable wedding — there were horses and a carriage for the bride and groom, and all the guests wore formal clothes, with big hats for the ladies. This week, in contrast, I watched a biker's wedding. The groom arrived on a powerful motorbike, and I thought, "Oh, no, surely the bride won't do the same?" But she did — and very happy she looked, too. I'd just like to wish both these lovely couples all the best in their very different lifestyles.

The Past Progressive

EX. 265. Comment on the use of the Past Progressive in the following sentences

1. When Arm turned on the television, the weatherman was giving the weekend forecast for Europe. 2. Diana and I were sitting in the library on Sunday morning, reading the newspapers. Or rather, she was reading, I was merely glancing through them. 3. To make conversation I asked him what he was doing at Oxford. 4. The noise was caused by a dog, which was chasing a cat through the garden. 5. Summer was slipping away, day by day. 6. The crisis over, Jake was finally feeling better in spirits. 7. Maxim's jaw dropped, he was unable to absorb the things he was hearing. 8. And I just knew it was my mother's face I was seeing in my mind. 9. Emma was generous of her time and money and she was understanding of heart. And she was being under standing now. And yet part of her was still disbelieving that it was true. 10. As usual, he was being selfish, thinking only about himself. 11. When she came back to the office, the secretary was still riffling through some papers. 12. She was being perfectly friendly again. 13. Nora thought she was being noisy. 14. When I entered a Pizza Hut, all around me people were eating pizzas the size of bus wheels. 15. He was liking the boy less and less every second.

Ex. 266.Use the right form of the verbs in brackets

1. On that special day Grandma was in her best clothes, she (wear) net gloves and a hat. 2. The child's eyes (shine) with excitement as he stared at the rows and rows of toys in this fantastic shop. 3. The scientists (work) around the clock, they (try) to raise funds for further research. 4. She looked out of the window and saw that the children (return) slowly from school. 5. When we (meet) for the first time, he (sell) newspapers on the streets. 6. At exactly this time yesterday they (have) a briefing. 7. What you (do) when I (call) you? You (sleep) or what? 8. We (have) a very lazy holiday. We (play) tennis, (visit) friends, the children (swim) and (sunbathe). 9. Gwenny still (leaf) through the magazines when I re turned to the parlour. 10. The middle-aged couple next to me (discuss) their plans for Christmas - who to invite out. 11. The police who (investigate) the crime at the moment, (can) find no clues at all. 12. I know that you thought that I (be stubborn) the other day. 13. The train (speed) past hills full of cows and sheep.

Ex. 267.Translate into English

1. У него алиби, инспектор. В прошлую субботу в 9 часов вечера он сидел в пивной. Многие люди могут подтвердить это. 2. Извините, но я не мог присоеди­ниться к вам, потому что смотрел свой любимый фильм. 3. — Чем сейчас занимается твой сын? — Го­товится к вступительным экзаменам в университет. 4. Вечером мы поехали в центр города. Множество людей смотрели концерт на Красной площади, неко­торые пели, другие танцевали. 5. Они уже опаздыва­ли, но не могли выйти, потому что шел сильный дождь. 6. Кто-то стучал в дверь, но мы никого не ждали. 7. Никто не мог понять, что происходило. 8. Когда мы пришли в офис, все обсуждали последние события. 9. В доме было спокойно: тикали часы, кошка играла с мячиком, собака спала у камина, дети собирали но­вую игру. 10. Все были очень заняты — они готови­лись к отъезду. 11. Вчера он целый день лежал на диване: читал, спал, смотрел телевизор. 12. Мы виде­ли, что он пытался помочь своим друзьям. 13. Идея осенила Норриса, когда он наслаждался сигарой.

Ex. 268.Use the right form of the verbs in brackets

It (snow) again. It (be) gorgeous. Just like a fairyland. All white. And the snow (glisten) in the sun. But the snow flakes (be) light, and as I (glance) out the window, I (notice) that they (melt) the moment they (hit) the pavement so it (can) not be the weather which (make) Andrew late getting home. "I think the traffic and the snow (hold) him up," Sarah said. "If it (snow) in Connecticut, it (can)(slow) Andrew down, and everyone else who (come) back to the city on Sunday night. There , (be) probably a backup of cars." "That's true, yes," I 155

(say), seizing on this possibility, wanting to ease worry. But the fact (be), Andrew was never late, and that was what (trouble) me now. Sarah (know) it as well as I (do), but neither of us (voice) this thought at the moment.

Ex. 269.Translate into English.

1. Спектакль длился несколько часов. Когда мы вы­ходили из театра, мы увидели нескольких знакомых. 2. Он думал неделю и затем принял решение. 3. Он смотрел на огонь в камине и о чем-то думал. 4. В про­шлом семестре мы часто посещали студенческие ве­чера. 5. Когда дети пришли домой, тети не было дома. Она навещала родственников. 6. Когда ты мне позво­нил, я как раз думал о тебе. 7. — Сколько времени ты набирал этот текст на компьютере? — Я работал два часа. 8. В воскресенье мы долго гуляли по лесу, 9. — Как долго ты училась в школе управления? — Три года. 10. Они были партнерами, но затем расста­лись, так как больше не доверяли друг другу. 11. Она полистала журнал минут пятнадцать и пошла гото­вить ужин. 12. — Как долго ты был в армии? — Я три года служил на флоте. 13. Она написала этот ро­ман за неделю. 14. Александр был очень занят. Он писал статью для журнала.

Ex. 270.Make the right choice.

1. Kate's hopes ... after her last interview. a. raised b. rose c. were raising 2. The landscape ... in silence, as if the world had stopped, a. lay b. laid c. was lying 3. The King's palace ... on the hill, overlooking the river, a. was standing b. stood c. stayed 4. A narrow path ... to the entrance to the secret garden, a. led b. was leading c. is leading 5. Meredith laughed and ... a perfectly shaped blonde brow. a. rose b. raised c. was raising 6. Instinctively she recognized that here her future ... . a. lay b. lied c. was lying 7. She ... suddenly and began to clear the kitchen table, a. raised b. was rising c. rose 8. I ... my hand in greeting. a. raised b. rose c. was raising 9. A little river ... through the grounds. a. flowed b. was flowing c. flew 10. Molly was walking along the lonely path that ... between the hills, a. ran b. was running c. runs 11. A thick fog ... in the air. a. hanged b. hung c. was hanging 12. Do you happen to know who ... this public fund? a. found b. founded c. finds 13. My parents can't offer me any financial help. I have to ... the money myself. a. raise b. rise c. rose 14. Now she knew that her happiness ... in his hands, a. was lying b. was laying c. lay 15. When I came into the room, my dog ... on the bed again. a. was laying b. lay c. was lying 16. The door ... open. a. stood b. was standing c. stood up 17. Last week he ... a new record. a. sat b. set c. was sitting 18. After the heavy rains the lake ... . a. rose b. raised c. risen

 

Ex 271. Translate into English.

1. Королевский дворец стоял в парке. 2. Полицейс­кий стоял на перекрестке и регулировал движение. 3. Река протекала через лес. 4. Перед нами лежала прекрасная долина. 5. Мальчик лежал на полу и смот­рел мультики. 6. Дорога вела к церкви. 7. Сусанин вел поляков через лес, все дальше и дальше от Москвы. 8. Ее будущее в твоих руках. 9. Кто основал этот фонд? 10. Кто нашел мою кассету? Спасибо! 11. Дверь стояла открытой. 12. В воздухе висел густой туман. 13. Дай молоток, мы вешаем барометр. 14. Самолет взлетел, и через минуту огромный город лежал под нами. 15. Эта пьеса идет (to run) в нашем театре. 16. Почему вода течет на кухне? 17. Этот колодец пе­ресыхает летом.

The Past Perfect

Ex. 272.Comment on the use of the Past Perfect in the following sentences

1. The programmer had done the work by four o'clock. 2. The policeman asked if there had been any witnesses. 3. By the time we got to the shopping centre it had closed. 4. The students had written the test and were now checking them up. 5. Mike phoned Rosie, but she hadn'1 returned home yet. 6. We had discussed the news arid were now thinking about it. 7. She complained that she was penniless as she had spent all her money. 8. When I came back home, my family had already had dinner and were now watching the film. 9. It turned out that Dick was ill and he had been ill for a fortnight. 10. We learnt that they had been close friends for many years. 11. Hardly had I turned on the television, when I heard shocking news. 12. No sooner had he opened the door than the children rushed to meet him. 13. Scarcely had the inspector opened the envelope when he understood everything. 14. By next morning, the snow that had begun in the night had turned into a blizzard so thick that the last class of the term was cancelled. 15. She had a stock of excuses, as usual, when in fact she had overslept as usual.

Ex. 273Use the right form of the verbs in brackets

1. She (talk) about the party she (arrange) for the children who (attend) her Sunday-school classes- 2. Emma suspected he (arrive) at the truth years ago3. Jack and Amelia were the only family she ever (have). 4. She got dressed in the cotton shorts and top she (wear) the day before. 5. Mari glanced over at the clock. It (be) nearly nine. She recently (learn) to tell the time. 6. Her words had touched the core of me, and I realized with a small shock how badly I (behave), I (think) only of myself. 7. They (be) truly good friends again, closer that they ever (be). 8. It was lovely to hear her laugh again. He not (hear) her laugh in years. 9. The police cordoned off the street where the bomb (go off). 10. The suspect refused that he (assault) a policeman. 11. The prisoner (spend) almost a month digging a tunnel before the guards (discover) it. 12. He said he (be) awfully sorry for the things he (do). 13. She seated herself in the chair Bill (pull) out for her. 14. The tense, worried expression he invariably wore, (disappear). Now it (be) smooth, free of pain and concern. 15. Roger guessed that she just (make) a dreadful slip of the tongue. 16. Before the mid-nineteenth century, no dentist (use) anesthesia.

 

Ex 274. Read and translate the sentences Pay special attention to use of the Past Perfect in the subordinate clauses of time

1. After they had shaken hands, Steve said, "Thank you." 2. Champagne was poured, and after they had all clinked glasses, Bill asked, "So are you here on business?" 3. Once she had applied a little make-up and sprayed on perfume, she ran downstairs to prepare lunch for David. 4. On Sunday morning, after she had drunk a quick cup of coffee, Vanessa dialed the Commodore Hotel. 5. After they had entered the church, they stood quietly for a moment, adjusting their eyes to the dim light. 6. After she had given the note to the front desk, her son led her outside. 7. Later that afternoon when Winston had left, she moved in the direction of the office. 8. When she had finished her cup, my mother put it down and started talking. 9. As soon as the last course had been served, the servants left the dining room. 10. After I had had my cup of tea, I went back to the library. 11. Once he had put everything away, Jake went back to the living room. 12. Once he had settled himself in the driver's seat, he said, "It's time to go home." 13. When they had eaten as many sandwiches as they could, they rose and left the pub.

 

Ex. 275.Translate into English

1. После того, как он увидел это собственными глава­ми, он поверил, что чудо действительно произошло. 2. Это было нечто, о чем мы никогда не слышали.

3. Эрик очень удивился, когда узнал, что Эрика влюблена в него и влюблена уже много лет. 4. После того, как дети ушли в школу, в доме стало тихо. 5. В про­шлом году я впервые посетила Ирландию. Я не бы­вала там прежде. 6. Нам не пришлось стоять в оче­реди, потому что мы купили билеты заранее. 7. Когда Таня позвонила Рите, та уже легла спать. 8. До 1893 года ни один врач не оперировал на сердце. 9. После того как неловкий момент прошел, все расслабились. 10. Он представлял себе вещи, которые не произош­ли. 11. Я никогда не занимался водными лыжами раньше. В первый раз я сделал это во время поездки на Кипр. 12. Виктор был измучен, устал. Он плохо спал уже несколько ночей. Его бессонница не была чем-то новым. 13. С острой болью Нина вдруг поняла, как же она соскучилась по детям! 14. Возможно, Эмма и была одержима властью (to be power-ridden). Но конечно же жизнь сделала ее такой. Андрей знал это, так как по­чти тридцать лет был ее финансовым консультантом. 15. После того, как она совершила храбрый поступок, она стала героиней в глазах всех.

Ex. 276.Read and translate the sentences Comment on the use of tenses in past-time contexts

1. She sat staring at the page she had written last night in New York. How swiftly and drastically her life had changed since she had made that entry. 2. And for the first time in more than twenty years she had found herself living in the city where she had been born 3. They walked toward the house. It had been months since they had been there. They felt comforted by the charm of the house. It had always been a peaceful place. Ever since they had first set eyes on it, they had thought of it as a living thing. 4. It crossed her mind that she had not been able to go out much since she had arrived almost five weeks ago. 5. Scott was definitely worried by something. It had been a long time since I had seen him in such a difficult mood. 6. The children loved Mat. They had felt safe with him from the very first time they had met on the moors. 7. She remembered that once, long ago, her mother had said that Maxim was like a cat with nine lives. How many of his had he used up?

 

Ex 277. Use the right form of the verbs in brackets.

1. The three of them became inseparable. A great deal of camaraderie (develop) between them in the short time they (know) each other. 2. He admitted that it (be) too long since he (see) them. 3. My life was hectic. And indeed it (be) a stormy life I (live) ever since. 4. Joe saw that Nel was worried. She (live) with a problem for the last few days, ever since the baby (be) born. 5. Mrs. Loveday liked Maggie. In the few weeks she (know) the girl she never (see) her ruffled. Nor she ever (hear) her raise her voice at the children. 6. He painted mostly in the red barn. It (become) a refuge for him since he (move) into the house. 7. She looked up at Charles. She (be) acutely conscious of him from the moment he (arrive). 8. The Berlin, she (be born) in, and where she (grow up), no longer existed.

 

Ex 278. Translate into English

1. Он вынужден был признать, что прошло много лет с тех пор, как он брал отпуск. 2. Они обожали этого ребенка. Он был их утешением с того момента, как родился. 3. Ее мысли все еще были о матери. Она не видела ее с тех пор, как Ирина уехала в Лондон. Она

не только дала ей и ее брату любовь и поддержку, но и всегда вдохновляла их на достижение всех жела­ний. Она всегда была им матерью и отцом. 4. Она по­жаловалась, что сколько она знала своего мужа, он всегда был трудоголиком. 5. Оксана знала стихотво­рение наизусть, так как мать научила ее много лет назад. И все это время оно было у нее в памяти (to stay in the mind). 6. Он объявил, что был влюблен в нее с тех пор, как впервые увидел ее. 7. Было ясно, что у мамы не было ни минуты отдыха, с тех пор как мы взяли двух щенков и кошку. 8. Ей было очень жаль, что она много лет не была в городе, в котором родилась. 9. Его владение английским было безуко­ризненно (flawless). Он воспитывался и получал об­разование в Англии с тех пор, как его семья перееха­ла туда. 10. Он выглядел как человек, который толь­ко что получил миллион долларов.

Ex. 279. A. Which of the following things have you done by your sixteenth birthday? Use the Past Perfect tense to answer.

Model: By my sixteenth birthday, I had smoked

cigarettes and decided that I was never going to smoke again.

smoke a cigarette

learn to drive

go on my first date

get drunk

study calculus

study physics

fall in love

have my first kiss

learn how to support myself

live apart from my parents

learn everything there is to know about life

be on an airplane

learn to speak another language well

get a job

decide what I wanted to do for a living

B. Now ask a classmate the same questions

Model: By your sixteenth birthday, had you smoked cigarettes?




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