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Объединение точек зрения





По мере того как продвинулось организационное исследование на протяжении 1990-х годов, была широко принята идея необходимости использовать эти теории вместе, а не в качестве конкурирующих объяснений. Показательно в данном случае исследование Fligstein (1985), а также работы Pfeffer и Davis-Blake (1987), Singh, Tucker и House(1986), Mezias (1990) и Palmer, Jennings и Zhou (1993). Эти исследователи не противопоставляли теории друг другу. Более того, они старались объединить самое большое количество вариантов, какое только возможно. Не существует какого-либо одного доминирующего набора комбинаций.

Fligstein и Mara-Drita (1996) изучили рациональные факторы и факторы окружающей среды при возникновении отдельного рынка в Европейском Союзе. Goodstein (1994) соединил институциональный и рационально-вероятностный подходы при исследовании степени вовлеченности организаций в проблемы рабочей семьи. Сходное объединение точек зрения обнаруживается в анализе Правительственной учетной службы США (U.S. Government Accounting Office) (Gupta, Dirsmith и Fogarty, 1994). Теория зависимости от ресурсов и институциональная теория были использованы в анализе процентного соотношения женщин, занимающихся менеджментом (Blum, Fields и Goodman, 7994).Таковы примеры постоянно растущей тенденции.

 

Выводы и заключение

Исходя из соображений здравого смысла, организации должны добывать ресурсы, одновременно стараясь достичь своих целей и не уступать перед лицом конкуренции. Среди организационных теоретиков получает распространение мнение, что пришло время прекратить быть "воинами принципа" (Aidrich, 1988) и вместо этого поискать более полное объяснение через объединение точек зрения. Когда это будет сделано, теоретический рост станет очевидным. Мы, возможно, даже сможем подобраться к неуловимой цели определения того, какое теоретическое объяснение работает в каких условиях, и тем самым получим действительно значительное толкование организаций. Эта книга была попыткой еще одного шага в этом направлении.

 


Указатель фирм

 

American Airlines

Apple Computers



Aston

Burger King

Carborundum Company

Chase Bank

First Boston Corporation

Ford Motor Company

General Electric

General Motors

General Reinsurance

Corporation

Goodrich and Salanick

Gulf Oil

IBM

Industrial Monopoly

Jones and Laughlin Steel

Kmart

Koppers Company

Mary Kay Cosmetics

Mayo Clinic

Mellon National Bank

Microsoft

National Labor Relations

Board

Paramount Communications

Prentice Hall Inc

Procters Gamble

Roebuck

Sears

Simon SSchuster

Tennessee Valey Authority

The Gap Toys R Us

Trust Company 37 Tupperware

U.S. Postal Service 303 Viacom Inc

Wal-Mart

Warren Bennis and Richard

Cyert

 


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