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Exercise 2 / Упражнение 2




Назовите недостающую букву.

w_ll we_come _now hell_ vis_tor se_retary ma_ager co_pany

a_sistant a_ain t_anks ho_

Звуковой строй английского языка

В английском языке 44 звука. Звуки гласные (20) и звуки согласные (24). Гласные звуки бывают долгие (5) и краткие (7), а так же сюда относят и дифтонги (8).

Правила чтения согласных звуков

Согласные звуки бывают глухие и звонкие. Некоторые согласные звуки очень схожи с соответствующими звуками русского языка. К ним относятся звуки [b g f v z m j p k]. Звуки [t d l n] хотя по звучанию и похожи на соответствующие русские, но произносятся иначе. Кончик языка при их произнесении нужно ставить на альвиолы – бугорки на нёбе над верхними зубами.

Но есть в звуковом строе английского языка и такие звуки, которых нет в русском языке. Это звуки [w θ ð ŋ d3]. А такие звуки как [t h r] по звучанию и артикуляции резко отличаются от сходных в русском языке.

Запомните некоторые правила чтения согласных звуков:

1. Английские согласные звуки произносятся твердо.

2. Звонкие согласные в конце слов никогда не оглушаются.

Для того, чтобы правильно читать английские слова, необходимо знать правила чтения букв и буквосочетаний и исключения из этих правил, поскольку в современном английском языке велико несоответствие между написанием и произношением слов. Такое расхождение объясняется тем, что английская орфография не подвергалась изменениям и отражает произношение, существовавшее несколько веков назад. Количество звуков превышает число букв. 26 букв алфавита должны обозначать 44 звука.

Знаки транскрипции

Гласные Согласные Дифтонги
[I]–[I:] [e]–[æ] [L]–[α:] [כ]–[ כ:] [u]–[u:] [ju:] [∂:] [∂]     [b]–[p] [d]–[t] [g]–[k] [f]–[v] [s]–[z] [m] [n] [l] [d3] [∫] [t∫] [j] [ks]–[gz] [r] [ð]–[θ] [3] [au] [ou] [u∂] [i∂] [ε∂] [ai] [כi] [ei]

Правила чтения гласных букв английского языка.

Гласная буква Открытый слог Закрытый слог Гласная+r Гласная+re
a [ ei ] make [ æ ] bag [ α: ] car [ ε∂ ] care
o [ ou ] rose [ כ ] not [ כ: ] port [ כ: ] more
u [ ju: ] cube [ Λ ] nut [ ∂:] turn [ ju∂ ] pure
e [ i: ] Pete [ e ] pen [∂: ] her [ i∂] here
i,y [ ai ] time cry [ i ] little gym [ ∂: ] girl myrtle [ ai∂] wire tyre

Чтение ударных сочетаний гласных букв



буквосочетания чтение примеры
ai ay [ei] main, faint, Spain, gain, plain, say, day, pay, May
ea ee [i:] meat, tea, speak, see, tree, green
ew [ju:] few, new
oi oy [כi] point, joint toy, boy
oo+k [u] book, look, took
oo [u:] food, pool
ou ow [au] out, stout brown, crown
ai+r [ε∂] fair, pair
ee+r [i∂] engineer
ou+r [au∂] our, flour
oo+r [כ:] door, floor

Чтение сочетаний согласных звуков

Буква Позиция Чтение Пример
ch любая [t∫] match, catch, chimp
sh любая [∫] shelf, she, show
ck после кратких гласных [k] stick, black, Jack
th 1. в начале знаменательных слов и в конце слова 2. в начале местоимений, служебных слов и между гласными [θ]   [ð] thick, myth, three     that, bathe
wh 1. в начале слова перед всеми гласными, кроме о 2. перед буквой o [w]   [h] what, which   who, whose
qu перед гласными [kw] question, quickly
ng в конце слова [ŋ] strong, long, sing

Согласные буквы, имеющие два варианта произношения

Буква Позиция Чтение Пример
с 1. перед e, i, y 2. перед a, o, u [s] [k] cent, pencil, icy cap, come, cup
g 1. перед e, i, y 2. перед a, o, u, всеми согласными и в конце слов [d3] [g] page, gin, gypsy   good, green, pig
s 1. в начале слов, перед глухими согласными, в конце слов после глухих согласных 2. между гласными, в конце слов после гласных и звонких согласных [s]   [z] sit, students, lists   please, lies, pens
x 1. перед соласными в конце слов 2. перед ударной гласной [ks]   [gz] text, six   exam

Exercise 3

Прочтите данные слова.

Aa

Face hat car care

Name bag park rare

Plate fax dark hare

Take hand star ware

Table map card spare

Bake cat arm share

Ee

He men her here

Tree sell term mere

speed belt person merely

freeze merry serve sere

we press germ

bee tense stern

Ii

Time milk bird fire

Nine six firm hire

Tie big first wire

Lie strict skirt admire

nice kid girl tired

rice sister sir mire

Oo

Tone lot or more

Bone not storm store

Stone box form bore

Open stop fork shore

Over drop pork before

Rose clock north pore

Uu

Tune bus hurt pure

Tulip plus purple lure

Cube cup fur cure

Student sun turn during

Pupil tub purse mural

True butter curl curious

Yy

Fly system Byrd tyre

My mystery Tyrd lyre

Cry Egypt myrtle byre

Type myth gyre

Style hymn syren

Lyme hypnotic gyro

Правила чтения

· гласные в ударном положении имеют алфавитное чтение перед согласной + le в конце слов: cycle, table, stable, title, able, idle, maple, cable

· гласные i, oперед nd, ldчитаются соответственно своему алфавитному названию: kind, wild, mind, find, bind, mild, idle, old, bold, told, cold, gold

· y – 1. [j] в начале слов – yes, yet, yell, yellow

2. [i] в конце двухсложных и многосложных слов в безударном положении: lady, silly, fancy, fifty, ninety, kitty

· a – [a:] перед s + согласная: mask, pass, class, task, fast, grass, grasp, last

· a – [כ:] перед lk: chalk, talk, walk, balk

перед ll: hall, ball, fall, small, all, wall, tall

· a – [a:] перед th: father, rather, path, bath

· o – [Λ] перед m, n, th, v: dove, some, won, front, month, mother, brother, come, love, glove

· igh – [ai] : fight, right, night, light, might, sight, high

· wr – [r] : write, wrong, wretch, wry, writ, wrap

· kn – [n] : know, knife, knight, knee, knit, knell

· ture – [t∂] : nature, future, structure, picture

· tion, ssion – [∫n] : nation, dictation, station, action, translation, Russian, session, oppression

· sure – [3∂] : leisure, pleasure, measure, treasure

· ph – [f] : photo, phone, physics, philosophy

· e – [i] в безударном положении : elect, enjoy, establish, deny, pocket, goodness

Exercise 4

Прочитайте слова.

1. [i:] deed, mete, sleep, green, been, me, feel, veal, steal, steel, tea, sea, eve, please, clean, teacher, easy, reader

2. [e] sent, send, pen, desk, let, end, Bess, fetch, egg, merry, seller, sender

3. [∂:] her, term, girl, sir, firm, turn, burn, curl, first, burst, birth, fur, work, word, world, worker

4. [ei] name, date, came, gave, Jane, game, make, fate, take, Kate, gate, stay, day, bay, rain, pain, main, chain

5. [æ] cat, map, bad, bag, stamp, glad, than, match, catch, that, daddy, badly, fat, mad, man, am, tan

6. [a:] car, park, start, bark, large, smart, farm

7. [ε∂] fare, care, bare, Clare, Mary, parents, air, pair, stairs

8. [ai] nine, fine, five, like, lie, vine, mile, pie, life, time, my, bye, by, shy, night, light, fight, right, might

9. [i] lift, sit, fit, stick, pin, glimps, Jim, big, this, Sid, system, myth, gym

10. [ai∂ ] fire, wire, tire, tyro, satire

11. [ou] go, stone, no, nose, rose, smoke, tone, cope, spoke, note, hope

12. [כ] not, got, top, clock, box, fox, sock, block, doctor, sorry

13. [כ:] nor, fork, sport, or, sort, lord, North, born, more, bore, store, tore, torn, corn

14. [ju:] tube, tune, tulip, cucumber, beautiful, beauty

15. [Λ] bus, fun, run, cup, duck, much, lunch, bunch, hurry

16. [ŋ] song, sing, thing, morning, long, strong, bang, ring, bring, drink, drank, rank, angry, angle

17. [k] black, chicken, block, thick, lick, hockey

18. [u] book, look, hook, took

19. [u:] food, moon, noon, pool, stood, tool, stool, foot

20. [כi] boy, toy, coin, point, voice, joy, join

21. [w] well, wine, watch, wake, we, were, why, when, white, what, whale

22. [h] who, whose, hunt, hurry, house

23. [au] town, brown, down, out, stout, scout, about, trout

24. [i ∂] engineer, deer, cheer, cheerful, sphere

Exercise 5

Прочитайте следующие слова:

snow, depth, width, stir, mere, bird, doctor, burn, sport, born, care, car, square, long, pure, rare, wire, maker, fume, she, singing, Dutch, Rome, space;

brick, teach, bold, run, myth, eve, add, go, fix, wage, cake, fancy, few, ink, day, dirty, here, nurse, serf, English, turn, worker, dark, car, hair, more, fir, ring, yes; kind, rifle, huge, town, round, child, pass, talk, six, know, witty, voice, satire, tester, darling, father, front, mother, among, aloud, along, gardener, some, human, parents, parrot, love

Exercise 6

Прочтите следующие словосочетания.

a pen, a black pen, a bed, a bad bed, a map, a big map,

an apple, a nice apple, an end, a happy end,

a little cat, a nice plan, a bad lamp, an old bag,

a huge town, a huge dirty town, a huge English town, a huge dirty English town

read a text, read text five, read text six aloud.


Exercise 7

Прочтите следующие предложения.

It is a pen. It is a pencil. It is an apple. It’s a table. It’s a lamp. It’s a map. It’s a nice plate. It’s a little cat. It’s a big flat. It’s an old bed. It’s a nice bag. It’s a big desk.

It is not a pen. It is not a big pen. It’s a little pen.

It is not a bag. It isn’t a nice bag. It’s a bad bag.

It isn’t a map. It’s a plan. It isn’t a table. It’s a bed. It isn’t a bad tie. It’s a nice tie. It isn’t a table. It’s a desk.

 

Exercise 8

Прочитайте текст.

This is a room. It is a big and good room. This is a wall. That is a wall, too. These are walls. The walls are white and blue. This is a door. The door is white. Those are windows. They are big and clean. This is a blackboard. That is a map. The blackboard and the map are on the wall.

This is chalk. It is in the box on the blackboard. These are tables and chairs. They are new and clean. This is a floor. It is clean, too.

Exercise 9

Прочитайте текст.

This is our Institute. Our Institute is large. This is our classroom. These are students. They are in the classroom. These are their English textbooks and notebooks.

This is paper. The paper is white and thin. It is clean. The paper is on the shelf. That is ink. It is red. It is in the bottle. The bottle is on the shelf, too.

This is our English textbook. It is not thick, it is thin. This is lesson one. It is on page three. That is lesson five. It’s on page eight.

 

Exercise 10

Прочитайте слова и выражения.

Office, job, secretary, contract, expert, file, assistant, experiment, meeting, important, director, representative, firm, presentation, occupation, receptionist, boss, manager, ideal, sale, industrial, delegation, accountant, engineer, finance, financial, market, marketing, department, personal, personnel, reception, work, workshop, report, signature, paper, catalogue, chief, electronic, mobile

A difficult question, a German office, an important meeting, an ideal boss, an ideal secretary, his occupation, an English representative, a large firm, look for a job, speak to the manager, an industrial country, a sales assistant, financial director, development department, research workshop, a personnel manager, a personal secretary, a mobile phone, an extension number, from abroad, overseas staff, my own business, stationery cupboard, fax-machine, coffee-machine, stock making

 

Exercise 11

Прочтите данные предложения.

1. I am looking for a job. 2. This is an interesting article. 3. He wants to speak to the manager. 4. Barbara is an ideal secretary. 5. They work in an old office. 6. It was an early morning. 7. The door opened and we saw an old man. 8. Simon is a sales assistant. 9. Britain is an industrial country. 10. It’s a difficult question. 11. The delegation stayed at an expensive hotel. 12. Fred is a managing director. 13. My sister is an accountant. 14. Clive is a financial director. 15. This is a marketing department. 16. It is a very old firm. 17. He doesn’t like his job, but he has to do it to earn money.

 

Lesson 2 Урок 2





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