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Active vocabulary


1. week – неделя

2. month – месяц

3. wedding – свадьба

4. holiday – каникулы, отпуск

5. swimming pool – бассейн

6. sun–tan – загар

7. penfriend – друг по переписке

8. decorator – декоратор

9. ceiling – потолок

10. frame – рама


11.everything – всё

12. nothing – ничего


13. boring – скучный

14. exciting – интересный, волнующий

15. wonderful – прекрасный

16. bad–tempered – в плохом настроении

17. manual – ручной

18. excited – взволнован


19. same – такой же

20. twice – дважды

21. once – (один) раз, однажды

22. never mind – ничего

23. at least – по крайней мере

24. soon – скоро, вскоре

25. really – на самом деле

26. nearly – почти

27. luckily – к счастью

28. through – через, сквозь

29.beside – около


30. to get married – выйти замуж, жениться

31. to be sure – быть уверенным

32. to reply – ответить

33. to sunbathe – загорать

34. to redecorate – делать космет. ремонт

35. to paint – красить

36. to stay – останавливаться (в гостиннице..)

Exercise 199

Here are some traditional types of informal letters which are often written by people in English–speaking countries. Look them through and think over the following:

a) What purposes do people write informal letters in English–speaking countries for?

b) Are these purposes the same when Russian people write informal letters?

c) What are the differences in letter–writing traditions which are typical of English–speaking countries and Russia?


18 June 1993

Dear Nigel,

Would you like to come to my birthday party on Saturday, June 29th at 6 a.m.?

I hope you can come.



15 The Fairway

5T Leonardo–on–Sea



12th January

Dear Mary,

Thank you very much for your nice Christmas card. I really should apologize for not having written before. But my mother was seriously ill and it took all my time to look after her. Thank God now she is much, much better. Now I can think about having a small party next Saturday.

Would you like to come to my birthday party on Saturday January 22nd at 7 a.m.? Tom has just come back from India and has got a lot of exciting things to tell us. We would be happy if you, Jim and John join us. Do come if you can.

Looking forward to seeing you,





34 Princess Road


12th Feb., 1990

Dear Cathy,

I am very glad that you enjoyed the time we spent together in London. I also had the most enjoyable time in my life.

As you see I am back in Edinburgh and once again I turn to my studies with a slight regret for I should have wished to be with you longer. Not only did I say goodbye to you but I also had to say goodbye to my friends in London, to Sally and Nigel. It is quite a coincidence but just before you came I met Nigel for the first time apparently and discovered that he and I were in the same class at school. He says he will be coming up to visit me sometime in the next few days.

I am back in Edinburgh again, as I said. But I can’t say I feel at home because my new flat is still in chaos and I don’t feel at all comfortable. I haven’t yet tried out any of the recipes on the cards you gave me because I am still waiting for someone to come and connect the cooker up to the gas main.

You will be pleased to know that I have cut down my cigarette smoking again to 7 a day. In fact I have even got to the stage of thinking of giving up, because I am not really enjoying them very much.

I am sorry that this letter is a bit disorganized, but I am very tired. I have been working at Japanese a lot during the day and I have written several letters.

Please give my best regards to all my friends, I am very sorry, but I can’t write letters to everyone; at least, not all at once.

My best wishes to you and your sister,

Yours, Andrew


102 Ocean St

Atlantic City,


February 12th, 1995

Dear Russian Friend,

Hello, my name is Jonathan Crown and I’m an American citizen. I’m really interested in how you live in Russia. I hear a lot of stories but I don’t really know how much I should believe.

I’m a very quiet person. I’m in the school band and play the flute. My favourite subject is Algebra. I do well in school.

We go to school five days a week, Monday through Friday. We have a six–hour day. The students arrive at school about 7.40. They socialize until 7.50. At 7.50 we go to our homeroom and get ready for our morning classes. From 8.15–9.30 we have a silent reading period. And at 9.30 we start our first period.

I have many hobbies that I enjoy doing. I often dance at school dances and juice bars. Juice bars are almost like a regular bar but they serve non–alcoholic beverages to the teens. I ski during the winter with my family in Vermont. Plus, one of my favourite pastimes is writing to my pals.

What is your school like? What are some of your hobbies? What subjects do you usually study at school? Do you have your own television?

I’m not going to down your country but I’m also not going to praise mine. Each of our countries has a leader who governs their country in a different way. We have leaders who believe in their way of governing and they think they are appropriate.

Hope to hear from you soon.

Your fiend,

Jonathan Crown

24th June 1999

Dear Julia,

I was very glad to get your letter invitation, but I’m afraid I won’t be able to come to your birthday party. It’s just before my finals and I must do them as well as I can. But I do hope that you’ll let me come and see you once after the exams are over.

Wishing the happiest of birthdays.

Yours, Nigel


After you’ve read the letters tick the boxes when necessary.

A person in an English–speaking country usually writes an informal letter when he would like to:

· Find new pen–friends (among people of his own age) ______

· Apologize for something ____

· Send a formal invitation ____

· Send an informal invitation ____

· Accept a formal invitation ____

· Accept an informal invitation ____

· Thank his friend for something ____

· Thank the people who have invited him to a party or to visit a school or university __

· Refuse a formal invitation ____

· Refuse an informal invitation ____


Exercise 200

Read and translate the letter.

5 Essex Road

London SW12 5JL

24th October

Dear Janet,

Thank you for your letter. I’m always very happy to hear from you.

Everything you do is so exciting.

I’m sitting here in the office with nothing to do. I’m waiting for 5.30 so that I can go home. Work is very boring at the moment. I do the same things every day. I always get up at the same time in the morning and I travel to work every day by tube and train. I do the same things at work and I usually have lunch in the same canteen. Twice a week I go to the cinema and once a month I go to Bournemouth to see you. Never mind. I’m leaving work next week and I’m getting married in November! At least that”s exciting. I look forward to hearing from you soon.

Much love.


Answer these questions about the letter. Use short answers.

1. Who is the letter to? – Janet.

2. Who is the letter from? _

3. Where does Joy live? _____

4. Where does Janet live? ___

5. What is Joy doing at the moment? ______________________________

6. What does Joy do at the same time every morning? ____________________

7. How does Joy travel to work? _

8. Where does Joy usually have lunch? ___________________________

9. Where does Joy go twice a week? ______________________________

10. How often does Joy see Janet? _______________________________

11. When is Joy leaving work? ___

12. When is Joy getting married? _

Exercise 201

Look at the letter again and look at a business letter. What are the differences between a personal letter and a business letter?


Exercise 202

Janet is replying to Joy’s letter, but the lines are in the wrong order. Write out the letter with the correct format.

My life isn¢t very exciting at the

31 October 1992


2 Grenville Drive

Thank you very much for your letter. I¢m

moment. I¢m in bed, because I¢m not


Dear Joy

very well.

sure your life isn¢t really boring

I¢m looking forward to your visit next

Bornemouth BM6 2GH

week and to the wedding.


Exercise 203

Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Simple or the Present Continuous.

Dear Susan,

Here I (1) am (be) in sunny Greece. The weather (2) ......... (be) fantastic. We (3) ....................... (have) a wonderful time. At the moment I (4) .................... (lie) beside the swimming pool with my friend James. I (5) ..................... (sunbathe) and James (6) .................... (drink) lemonade. We (7) .................... (sunbathe) and we (8) ............................. (swim) every day and at night we (9) .................................. (eat) in a restaurant and then we (10) ............................... (dance) in the disco. I (11) ........................ (have) a good sun–tan. I (12) ................................. (look forward) to seeing you next week when we (13) ............................ (come) home.

See you then,

Love, Sally


Exercise 204

Fill in “my”, “her”, ‘his”, “your’, “our”, “their” or “its”.

Dear Jane,

Hello, 1) my name is Helen and I am from England. I would like to be 2) .................... penfriend. I have got a sister. 3) .................. name is Patty. She is married and 4) ................ husband’s name is Mark. They have got a pet dog; 5) .................... name is Scamp. My farther is a doctor. 6) .................. name is Peter. My mother is a teacher. 7) ................. name is Pamela. Do you have any brothers or sisters? Please tell me 8) ...................... names in 9) ...................... next letter. In 10) ................... next letter I will send you a photo of 11) ............... family and 12) .................. house. It is a big house and 13) ................. garden is lovely too. Please write soon.



Lesson 16 Урок 16

Planning a Party Планируем вечеринку

Active vocabulary


1. plural – множественное число

2. cup – чашка, кружка

3. glass – стакан, фужер

4. sheet – лист

5. knife – нож

6. roll – рулон

7. bottle – бутылка

8. box – коробка

9. jar – стеклянная банка

10. packet – пачка, упаковка

11. jug – кувшин

12. loaf – буханка

13. slice – отрезанный кусочек

14. carton – пакет картонный

15. can – жестяная баночка

16. bow l – чаша

17. kilo – килограмм

18. piece – кусочек, ломтик

19. gallon – галон

20. pound – фунт

21. quart – кварта

22. spoonful – ст. ложка

23. tube – тюбик

24. water – вода

25. bread – хлеб

26. tea – чай

27. honey – мед

28. sugar – сахар

29. meat – мясо

30. wine – вино

31. juice – сок

32. paper – бумага

33. sellotape – скотч

34. paper clip – скрепка

35. butter – масло

36. ink – чернила

37. liabilities – долги

38. profit and loss account – счет прибылей и убытков


Exercise 205

Write the plurals of these words, like this:

pen – pens

1. box – ________ 11. floor – _________________

2. filing cabinet –_______________ 12. person – ________________

3. cup of tea – _________________ 13. sheet of paper – __________

4. day – ______________________ 14. telex – __________________

5. shelf – _____________________ 15. knife – _________________

6. glass – _____________________ 16. company – ______________

7. letter –______________________ 17. secretary – ______________

8. man – ______________________ 18. lunch – _________________

9. customer –___________________ 19. office – _________________

10.paper clip – _________________ 20. woman – _______________


Grammar notes

Существительные в английском языке бывают исчисляемые и неисчисляемые.К исчисляемым существительным относятся названия предметов, которые можно пересчитать. Они употребляются как в единственном, так и во множественном числе.

An apple – five apples; a friend – many friends; a man – men

К неисчисляемым существительным относятся названия предметов, которые нельзя пересчитать: вещественные существительные (cotton, hair, plastic, silk), абстрактные (education, music, time), существительные, обозначающие деятельность (cooking, farming, reading), продукты питания (сhocolate, fish, rice, meat), газообразные вещества (air, smoke, oxygen), жидкости (water, wine, juice, tea), природные явления (cold,weather, rain, snow), сыпучие вещества (dust, sand, sugar, salt).

Некоторые неисчисляемые существительные становятся исчисляемыми, если с ними употребляются собирательные существительные: a bottle – бутылка, a glass – стакан, a jug – кувшин, a kilo – килограмм и т.д.


Exercise 206

Put these words into two lists, like this:

Countable Uncountable

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