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Методические указания по работе с пособием




Данное методическое пособие предназначено для студентов очного отделения Международного факультета с разной языковой подготовкой. Поэтому для студентов со слабой подготовкой или раннее изучавших другой иностранный язык специально разработан вводный урок, который дает краткие сведения о звуковом строе английского языка, обучает чтению.

Уроки пособия содержат упражнения различной сложности для того, чтобы преподаватель подбирал их в соответствии с языковой подготовкой студентов.

Каждый урок начинается с новых слов и выражений, соответствующих теме урока. Необходимо заучивать данный материал наизусть.

Грамматический материал присутствует в каждом уроке небольшими дозами, соответствующими тому или иному грамматическому явлению/структуре. Данный материал изучается в аудитории. Введение нового грамматического материала сопровождается несколькими закрепляющими упражнениями. Прослушав объяснения преподавателя и прочитав грамматический справочник пособия, студенты выполняют закрепляющие упражнения.


Lesson 1 Урок 1

Describing people Описание внешности

Active vocabulary / Активный словарь

Parts of a body. Части тела.Adjectives. Прилагательные.

1. head – голова 11. long – длинный

2. face – лицо 12. short – короткий

3. eyes – глаза 13. curly – кудрявый

4. nose – нос 14. straight – прямой

5. ears – уши 15. dark – темный

6. hair – волосы 16. fair – светлый

7. arms – руки 17. fat – полный

8. legs – ноги 18. obligatory – обязательный

9. a beard – борода 19. casual – обычный

10. a moustache – усы20. smart – опрятный

Clothes. Одежда Accessories. Аксессуары.

18. a dress – платье 25. glasses – очки

19. a blouse – блузка 26. a pipe – трубка

20. a skirt – юбка 27. watch – наручн. часы

21. trousers – брюки 28. beads – бусы

22. a shirt – рубашка Verbs. Глаголы.

23. a suit – костюм 29. to wear – носить одежду

24. a tie – галстуk 30. to put on – надевать

31. to match – подходить

32. to allow – разрешать

Exercise 1 º (We Mean Business p 47)

Listen to the dialogue, read it and translate.

Simon: Hello!

Ann: Hello, Simon. It’s nice to see you here...Who are all these people?

Simon:Well, you know Sheila and Joy and the girl with the glasses is Luisa.

Ann:Oh, I know. The receptionist.

Simon:That’s right. And the man with a moustache is Howard Spencer.



Ann:Which one? There are two men with moustaches.

Simon:Oh, yes. That one. He’s standing next to Sheila.

Ann: Oh, I see.

Simon:Would you like a cigarette?

Ann: No, thanks. I don’t smoke.

Simon:Excuse me. Have you got a light?

Howard: No sorry. Oh look, they’re giving Joy her present.

 

Exersise 2

Read the questions and answer them.

1. Who is the girl with glasses?

2. Where is Howard?

3. Who smokes and who does not?

4. What are they giving Joy?

 


Exercise 3

Using the words from these tables, write six sentences about the people in the picture, like this.

A woman is talking to a man with short dark straight hair.

A woman   talking to a man
    is sitting next to    
The man   standing near the woman
  short dark curly     a pipe
with       hair and a moustache
  long fair straight     a beard
 
 

          glassess

 

Exersice 4

Make up sentences according to the pattern.

The woman is wearing a white blouse and a dark skirt.

The man is wearing a suit, a white shirt and a tie.

Exercise 5

Look at the picture above and answer the questions.

  1. Who is wearing a dark dress?
  2. Who is the woman in white blouse talking to?
  3. What is the man with a pipe and a moustache doing?
  4. Where is the woman with long blond hair sitting?
  5. What is the woman with short fair hair and a glass doing?
  6. Who is sitting at the table?

 

Exercise 6

Read the article about Business Culture.

Dress codes are rapidly changing in the world of business. In companies across the United States, the business suit and tie are disappearing from the workplace, and casual office wear – slacks and a sport jacket for men, pants or a skirt and a jacket for women – is becoming more and more popular. “Dress down Friday” (a day when employees are permitted to wear casual clothes) is spreading to the other weekdays, and this trend will probably continue.

In a poll of 3,700 executives by Management Recruiters International of Cleveland, Ohio, 40 per cent believed that the business suit is becoming a thing of the past. Many executives believe that business people will not wear suits at all ten years from now, not even to job interviews.

  • code – cистема правил
  • rapidly – быстро
  • disappear – исчезать
  • casual – обычный
  • employee – работник
  • permit – разрешать
  • spread – распространять
  • executive – должностное лицо
  • believe – верить
  • poll – социологический опрос

 

Exercise 7

Write T (true) or F (false) according to the article.

  1. This article is about what to wear for an interview.
  2. Business people dress informally more often now.
  3. Nowadays people wear business suits on “dress down Fridays”.
  4. Many of the executives in the poll think that business people will dress more casually in the future.

Exercise 8

Read the text.

In country A business people dress quite formally. The business suit is common, but for men, wearing non–matching jacket or trousers is also a possibility.

In country B the dark business suit is obligatory for men. Some companies allow women to wear trouser suits.

In country C the business suit is almost as necessary as in country B, but with more variation in colours. Some companies require employees to wear formal clothes from Monday to Thursday, and allow less formal ones on what they call casual Fridaysor dress–down Fridays.In some places, many banks and shops require people dealing with customers to wear uniforms so that they all dress the same.

In country D people dress more casuallyat work than in the other countries. For men, suits and ties are less common than elsewhere. This is smart casual.

 

Exercise 9

Which of these sentences are true for your country?

  1. Employees are allowed to wear what they like.
  2. We are not allowed to wear jeans or T–shirts at work.
  3. My colleagues are happier if they can wear what they like.
  4. I prefer to dress more formally at work.
  5. I feel happier at work if I can wear what I like.
  6. We are expected to wear formal dress at work.

Exercise 10

Answer the following questions.

  1. How do people dress at work in your country?
  2. Do any companies have dress–down days in your country?
  3. What are advantages and disadvantages of how people dress?

Exercise 11

Read the article and answer the question which follow.

Simon Harris, a senior executive in the London branch of the computer firm Samex Systems, regularly arrives at work wearing jeans, trainers, and a colourful pullover. His secretary, Martine, is often dressed in a bright yellow T–shirt and designer jeans. Samex Systems recently decided to allow its 1,500 employees to leave their pin–stripe suits and smart frocks in the wardrobe and to wear casual clothes at work.

Samex’s Human Resaurces Director, Norma Leaman is responsible for introducing the new policy. “I travel quite a lot to the USA. Many of the companies I visit there no longer have strict dress codes. In fact, many employees wear practically what they like.”

Norma decides to introduce casual dress as an experiment in the company. “We started off by allowing people to dress in a more relaxed way once a week. Then we extended it to two days a week. Now most employees can wear more relaxed dress when they like.”

There are of course, still some rules. Dirty and untidy clothes are not allowed. Male employees are told not to wear earrings at work. And for some people there is still a dress code. Sales staff do not go out on visits wearing jeans. Overseas visitors – especially if they come from the Far East – are not welcomed by executives in Bermuda shorts and beach shirts.

The fashion for casual dress at work started on the weast coast of the United States. American hitech companies found that younger employees were happier with a less formal style. “In the information technology industry the devision between office and home is not very important,” says consultant Luis Rodriguez. “Many people work at home wearing the clothes they feel most relaxed in. When they are in the office, they just don’t see the need to dress very formally.“ Rodriguez has carried out a survey on dress among 700 US companies. “We found that about 70% of companies allowed employees to wear casual clothes on some occasions.” There are a number of explanations for the more relaxed modern style, according to Rodriguez. “Companies with a higher proportion of women employees tend to be more relaxed about dress codes.”

It is also significant that there are many more younger people in positions of power. “You now find senior managers in their early thirties or even younger. They just don’t want to dress like their grandfather did.”

Even the most traditional companies have been caught up in the new fashion. Take MFD Securities, a City of London investment firm. For many years executives had to wear white shirts, dark suits, and ties. Now they are allowed to wear more casual jackets and trousers. Jeans, however, are not allowed. “Our customers are getting younger and younger,” says MFD spokesperson Jan Martin. “Often they are happier dealing with someone of their own age and background. And that means dressing in a more formal way.”

However, not all companies are following the trend. A junior executive in a Paris bank recently arrived at work to find four brand new white shirts on his desk. This was his company’s way of saying that blue and yellow striped shirts were not acceptable.

 

Exercise 12

Answer these questions from the article.

  1. How have Samex changed their dress policy recently?
  2. How was the change introduced?
  3. What rules still exist in Samex?
  4. What were the results of the Rodriguez survey?
  5. Do all City companies have a strict dress code?
  6. What experience did a French excutive recently have?

 

Exercise 13

Complete these sentences with something from your won experience or company.

  1. You are allowed to wear _______________
  2. ___________ are banned.
  3. ______________________________ are acceptable, but _________________________ are unacceptable.
  4. Some people think they should be allowed to wear _______________________________

 

Exercise 14

Read and translate. Do you agree? Give your own idea.

The Clothes We Wear

Without realizing it, the clothes we choose to wear tell other people a lot about us. We often judge people by clothes they are wearing. For example, people dressed in expensive clothes are thought to be wealthy. Our shoes, accessories and jewelry, all tend to create an impression of our social class and personality. Similarly, our choice of clothes also depends on our age and who we are influenced by. On the other hand, we do not always get the chance to choose our clothes. If we work as a nurse, police officer or fire–fighter we have to wear a standard uniform. Lastly, our ideas of beauty are revealed by our style of dress. Dressing in a particular outfit might be a way of saying, “This is what I think is nice, and I believe it makes me look more attractive.” In conclusion, more than being just a way to keep warm, clothes reveal a lot about a person’s life, character and status.

 

Grammar notes

Articles / Артикли

Неопределённый артикль “а”может употребляться только с именами существительными в единственном числе, называя предмет, не выделяя его конкретно.

Is it a man? (любой мужчина)

Определённый артикль “the”употребляется с существительными в единственном и множественном числе, выделяя конкретный предмет, о котором идёт речь.

Is it the man with a moustache? (конкретный мужчина)

 

Exercise 15

Fill in “a”, “an” or “the”.

Tina: Are these Mother’s things?

Father: What are they?

Tina: ...... bag, ...... orange dress, ...... book, ...... pair of glasses.

Father: ...... bag and ……. book are mine. ...... orange dress and ...... pair of glasses are your mother’s.

 

Exercise 16

Fill in the article “a”, “an”, “the”, “–“ where necessary.

1. My husband is …….manager.

2. They are ……..friends.

3. My husband speaks ……… English language well.

4. They often have ……….business trips.

5. They meet ………people from foreign countries and speak about………various traditions and customs.

6. Paul drives ……car very well.

7. Fred is ……Managing Director of ……company.

8. Henry is ……account manager.

 


Grammar notes

Употребление определенного артикля “the”с именами собственными.

 

· Определенный артикль “the”употребляется перед названиями рек, каналов, морей, заливов, проливов, океанов, архипелагов, горных цепей, пустыннь

The Black Sea, the Pacific ocean, the Urals, the Neva

· Артикль употребляется с названиями тех стран, основным элементом которых является нарицательное имя существительное:

The USA, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union,the Republic of Ireland

Исключения:

The Netherlands, the Ukraine, the Crimea, the Congo

· Артикль употребляется перед названиями судов, гостиниц, ресторанов, музеев, галерей, английских газет, кинотеатров и театров, памятников

The Moskva Hotel, the British Museum, the Bombay restaurant, the Odeon

· Артикль не употребляется перед названиями озер, гор, островов, континентов, городов, стран, улиц, площадей, парков

Africa, Moscow, Russia, High Street, Trafalgar square

· Артикль не употребляется с именами, фамилиями, с названиями университетов, колледжей, станций, аэропортов,

Peter Smith, St. Petersburg University, Oxford University, London airport

 

Exercise 17

Fill in the article “a”, “the” or “–“ where necessary.

…….United States of America is …….large country. ………people who live there are ……… Americans. Many people of other nationalities live in …….. America. …….. Washington is ……..capital of ……..America. Three million people live there. ………..Americans speak ……..English.

Exercise 18

Fill in “the” or “–“.

  1. ……Thames flows through ……. London.
  2. I live in ……. Tverskaya Street.
  3. …. United Kingdom includes ….. Great Britain and …… Northern Ireland.
  4. My train leaves from …… Waterloo station at 7.30 pm.
  5. …… USA is …. fourth largest country in …… world after ……. Russia, …… Canada and …… Republic of ….. China.
  6. Would you like to go to …… Kremlin?
  7. Where’s …. John’s raincoat?
  8. Does …. Mark speak ….. Spanish?
  9. …… Volga flows into….. Caspian Sea.
  10. …. Urals are old and not very high.
  11. Two of my friends entered ……. Moscow State University last year.
  12. How much does it cost to stay at …… Grand Hotel?
  13. Have you ever been to ….. Bolshoi Theatre?
  14. …… Pacific is the largest ocean on our planet.
  15. ….. Tom Spenser spent two years in …. Africa when he was a student.

Grammar notes

Определенный артикль “the “ употребляется:

1. если упоминаемый предмет является единственным в мире.

The sun is in the blue sky.

2. если этот предмет является определенным по ситуации:

Put the book on the table.

Exercise 19

Fill in “a”, “an” or “the” where necessary.

1. I wrote to her but ……letter never arrived.

2. What is …name of this company?

3. We live in …..old house near ….station. It’s two miles from ……centre.

4. Let’s go to …restaurant this evening. – That’s …good idea. Which restaurant shall we go to?

5. I want to buy ……jacket and ….. shirt. ……jacket is expensive, but ….shirt is cheap.

Exercise 20

Use the articles where necessary.

  1. Teckle comes from …….very old country on …… Nile. It is called …..Ethiopia. ….. Ethiopia is …..beautiful mountainous country. Teckle is …young man. He wants to become ….engineer. He is very happy to be …student of …St. Petersburg University. He spends …lot of time at ….library reading and studying different subjects. Very often in ….evening his new friends and he walk about …city talking about their native countries.
  2. Galina lives in …Ukraine. She lives in …small village near Odessa. She is ….librarian. In summer she has …lot of …work: she takes …newspapers and …magazines to …people who work in the fields. Galina wants to enter … Moscow University and now she is preparing for …entrance examinations.
  3. What’s …..weather like today? – …weather is fine. ….sun is yellow. ….sky is grey today.
  4. We had ... English lesson yesterday. …teacher asked me many …. questions. …..questions were difficult.
  5. Where is your ….brother? – He is at …home. He is in his …room. He is sitting at …table. He is doing his ….homework. …..homework is easy.
  6. It is very dark in …room. Turn on …light, please.
  7. ….Nick went to …bathroom, turned on …water and washed his hands.

 

Grammar notes

Употребление слова “one”

Слово “one употребляется для замены часто повторяющихся слов контекста.

He’s a very tall man. He’s the tall oneover there.

Would you like a sandwich? Yes please. I’d love one.

 

Exercise 21

Put in “one” or “ones”.

1. – I want to buy a newspaper.

- Which …….?

2. – Can you give me a cassette?

- I’m sorry. I don’t have ……. .

3. These cameras are expensive and those …….. are cheap.

4. I don’t want to work in this old office, I want to work in that new …. .

5. – Would you like this watch?

– No, that ….. .


Exercise 22

Complete the sentences. Use a/an……one. Use these words in your answers:





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